ment because only the technical teaching of forestry would have to be provided for, instruction in the fundamental and allied sciences being already abundantly secured in the necessary endowment of the ordinary educational establishments. The argument for the union of the separate forest schools with the universities, as put by Dr. Richard Hess, formerly Professor of Forestry and now director of the Forestry Department of the University of Giessen, in a recent work of his, may be taken as a fair exhibition of the reasoning of those who favor the. union of the forest schools with the universities. He claims that the universities can always command for their various chairs men of the highest ability, and this, in the first place, because the position of such a professor is the most independent one, the instructors in the forest schools being dependent upon the director; secondly, because the universities have better libraries and apparatus than the forest schools can have by themselves; thirdly, the natural stimulation of colleagues in allied chairs is a powerful motive to excellence; fourthly, the latest developments of science in the related departments of instruction will be found in the universities; fifthly, the professors in connection with the universities receive a better income than those in the isolated forest schools; and, finally, the academic atmosphere of the great university is of value, and helpful to professors and students alike. These reasons are forcibly urged in addition to those economical considerations which we have already mentioned. Professor Hess also adduces the practical fact that the forests of Hesse show the very best management, and are visited by foresters from abroad on this account, and that the forest management of Hesse took a high position at the Congress of Foresters held in connection with the Vienna Exposition in 1873.
The tendency of opinion, especially in the central and southern portions of Germany, seems to be in favor of attaching the forest academies to the universities. More and more there is demanded, in those who are called to important positions in the forestry service, the most thorough academical education, and one now has very little chance of gaining a high position in the management of the government forests who has not had a complete university education. Without this he can hope to occupy only a subordinate place. The tendency of the opinion of those most competent to judge in the case is shown also by the fact that at a convention of foresters held at Freyburg in 1874, and numbering three hundred and sixty-nine members, it was declared unanimously that the isolated system of forest instruction will no longer suffice, and the study of forestry in connection with the universities was favored.
One of the most recently established schools is that at Münden under the directorship of Dr. Gustav Heyer. Its management is like that at Neustadt-Eberswalde, and the average number of students has been about seventy-five. The Central Forest Institute at Aschaffen-