Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 19.djvu/493

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other phenomena. They remind one of the slight gradual alterations in pitch which the notes from a vibrating elastic rod undergo when the rod is weighted, or of the change of tone which an organ-pipe exhibits when the tube is lengthened." The accompanying woodcut (Fig. 1), copied from Professor Bunsen's paper, may serve to illustrate the shift observed in one of the absorption bands.

Similar changes take place when some substances like cyanin and chlorophyl are dissolved in different liquids. Absorption bands characteristic of these various substances appear, but they slightly vary in position. Professor Kundt, who has carefully examined this displacement of absorption bands, has come to the conclusion that as a rule the liquids of high dispersive powers were those which shifted the bands most toward the red end of the spectrum. But, though there is an apparent tendency in this direction, no rule can be given which shall be absolutely true whatever the substance which is dissolved. Fig. 2 shows the absorption spectrum of cyanin when dissolved in different

Fig. 2.
PSM V19 D493 Spectral analysis revealing chemical compounds.jpg
A Absorption of Cyanin in Bisulphide of Carbon.
B "" Nitrobenzene.
C "" Benzene.
D "" Ether.
E "" Alcohol.

liquids. The measurements made by Claes[1] are employed. We have here an interesting proof that a solution is sometimes much more of a chemical compound than is generally supposed. The solvent and the substance must, indeed, be closely connected in order to produce a shifting of the absorption band. On the other hand, it is not astonishing that no general law can be given which connects the displacement with the physical properties of the solvent, for the closeness of connection depending on the special chemical affinity for each

  1. "Wied. Annalen," iii, p. 388, 1878.