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rocks, as in Europe, and not in trees, as Wilson and others had supposed; and that the American eagle is a fishing-eagle, robbing fish hawks when he can, diving himself after fish when he has to. He also discovered and described a new species of trilobite in Pennsylvania, which Professor Hall named after him.

Professor Haldeman's first publication was made in 1835, the year of his marriage, and was a paper in the "Lancaster Journal," exposing the falsity of the celebrated "Moon Hoax," published by Richard Adams Locke in the New York "Sun." He also published, in connection with his labors as a naturalist, a work on the "Fresh-Water Univalve Mollusca of the United States," in nine parts, 1840 to 1866; three numbers of a series of "Zoölogical Contributions"; "Outlines of the Zoölogy of Pennsylvania"; a sketch of the natural history and geology of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; a monograph on the genus Leptoxis for a French work; an article on the "Zoölogy of the Invertebrate Animals," for the American edition of the "Iconographic Encyclopædia"; and seventy-three papers which Professor Agassiz has enumerated as having appeared in the scientific and philosophical journals and "Transactions" of the United States up to 1852.

"Dr. Haldeman," says Mr. C. H. Hart, "very early took a deep interest in the languages of the North American Indians, and, as an aid to the study of ethnology, he now devoted his attention to the study of language in general; and doubtless it will be as a learned and accurate philologist that his labors will be most remembered. His investigations in this most interesting study were not directed so much to the origin and source of language as to rendering it facile of acquirement and expression—his specialty being the notation of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in speech; thus reaching the form of language, which is merely the peculiar method of uniting thought with sound." The first result of these labors in this department was the paper entitled "Some Points in Linguistic Ethnology, with Illustrations chiefly from the Aboriginal Languages of North America," which was published in the "Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences," in October, 1849. A work on the "Elements of Latin Pronunciation," which was published in 1851, and was warmly received, was an indirect result of studies which he pursued with the object of finding a way to adapt the Latin alphabet, while adhering strictly to its Latin signification, to the representation of the sounds of the native Indian languages. From this he was led on to pure linguistic studies, the fruits of which appeared in his "Investigation of the Power of the Greek ft by Means of Phonetic Laws" (1853), in a monograph "On the Relations between Chinese and the Indo-European Languages" (1856), and in his report to the American Association for the Advancement of Science "On the Present State of our Knowledge of Linguistic Ethnology." Having delivered some lectures on the "Mechanism of Speech" before the Smith-