with the development of the organic kingdom are considered with fullness, and by a naturalist competent to deal with them. In his preface the author observes: "A considerable experience as a biological teacher has long since convinced me that the hesitancy with which evolution is accepted and the doubt with which even cultured persons are occasionally apt to view this conception of nature arise chiefly from lack of knowledge concerning the overwhelming evidences of its existence which natural history presents. Doubtless, a training in botany and zoölogy is required before the case for evolution can be fully mastered, but there need be no difficulty in the way of any intelligent person forming a just estimate of evolution upon even an elementary acquaintance with the facts of biology. I have accordingly sought to bring such facts prominently before the notice of my readers, and I would fain hope that even the complex topic of 'development' itself, a strong pillar of the theory of evolution, is susceptible of easy appreciation when the facts and inferences to be drawn therefrom are plainly stated."
Youth: Its Care and Culture. An Outline of Principles for Parents and Guardians. By J. Mortimer-Granville. New York: M. L. Holbrook & Co. Pp. 167.
The author is known as a thoughtful and vigorous writer on subjects of practical hygiene and discipline. The aim of his present work is to expose "certain fallacies" which prevail on the subject of child management and education, and to indicate, "in suggestive outline," the principles which should guide parents in the care and culture of youth. He considers the physical and moral training of boys and girls, advocating the allowance of the freest scope for physical growth in both sexes, with a "hardy" treatment and no coddling, and a particularity in moral culture which is as strange to the general society of the day as it is much needed.
Dress and Care of the Feet. By Dr. P. Kahler. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 37.
Dr. Kahler believes that chiropody should be recognized as a profession, and that those who intend to practice it should be scientifically qualified for their vocation. He enforces the importance of caring for the feet, a healthy condition of which is considered very closely connected with happiness and the soundness of the whole body, and particularly of the brain and nervous system. His manual consists chiefly of practical suggestions respecting the treatment of diseases and aches of the feet, concerning the care of the feet that will prevent their acquiring diseases and aches, and on the proper construction and form of shoes.
Report of T. B. Ferguson, a Commissioner of Fisheries of Maryland. Hagerstown, Maryland. Pp. 152, with Plates.
The report describes the work done in the western part of the State during 1880. This work, which includes also the distribution of 1,500,000 shad and 090 carp in waters wholly within the eastern section of the State, under the direction of the Western Commissioner, is regarded as very important, both on account of the success attained in the attempted propagation of several varieties of valuable fish by artificial means, and because of the accumulated proofs which the year afforded of the happy results of the effort fully to restock the waters of the State with shad. A valuable account of experiments and observations in oyster-culture, by John A. Ryder, is added.
Sixth Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Wisconsin. 1881. Madison, Wisconsin. (J. T. Reeve, Appleton, Secretary.) Pp. 146.
The health of the State was generally good during the year, notwithstanding the unusually large number of deaths from diseases of the respiratory organs among old people, caused by the severe winter of 1880-'81. The history of the various contagious diseases which appeared is reviewed Especial attention is given to the condition of the schools and school-houses, in respect to which the board trust that the beginning of a change for the better may be seen, the end of which shall be that the improvements which are demanded shall receive the consideration due to them, and "the child shall be recognized as a being of higher value than the grade, rather than as subordinate thereto."