|Average of fog each passage on the southern route||3 33|
|Average of fog each passage through the ice-region by former route||7 52|
|Average of fog each passage through the same by latter route.||1 6|
and, omitting the fifty-eighth voyage, have actually an average of only fourteen minutes of each passage for eight passages through the whole region of the Atlantic where ice is liable to be encountered. Another fact that should not be forgotten in the comparison is the maximum amount of fog liable to be met with (see twenty-second and thirtieth passages west) on the northern route (track No. 1).
Cape Race in August.—On this route for this month we have—
|Average distance sailed each passage||2,858|
|Average distance sailed each passage by extreme southern route.||3,021|
|Loss of distance each passage||163|
Against which loss of distance, we find the average of fog as above, instead of—
|Average hours of fog, Cape Race||12 17|
|Average hours of fog through the ice-region||4 1|
|Maximum amount of fog on thirty-ninth voyage||23 51|
As I have seen ice on three out of five of these August passages via Cape Race, it is an open question which is the best route for this month in ordinary years. Where the ice has continued so late as in the present season, I should certainly prefer the southern route. Below is the report of the steamer Main (Ger.), via Cape Race, in July of the present year, arriving in New York on the 20th of that month: "Passed Cape Race July 18th; . . . from Sable Island to Sandy Hook had continuous fog; July 19th (?) latitude 47° 45', longitude 48° 12', passed an iceberg; same date, latitude 46° 56', longitude 52° 24', up to Cape Race, for a distance of thirty miles numerous large and small icebergs; same date, latitude 46° 11', longitude, 53° 54', two large icebergs."
Currents.—I was much surprised, on comparing the total distances, by observation and account, for these westerly passages, to find that the average current was less on the southern than on the northern route.
The following shows the comparison for the twenty-seven westerly passages: