Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 23.djvu/581

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

First-Year Arithmetic-Teacher's Manual, and First-Year Text-Book. By James H. Hoose, A. M., Ph. D. Syracuse, New York: C. W. Bardeen. Pp. 156. Price, 35 cents.

This work is based upon Pestalozzi's system of teaching elementary numbers, and is designed for pupils in the first grade, or first year of public schools. It appears to have grown out of work that was accomplished by teachers with pupils of the grade for which it is designed, and to be in effect simply a transcription of the record of that work as kept by the teachers from day to day, for application to other classes. By it, it is claimed, pupils may lea r n to compute numbers with accuracy and readiness, without a slate; to express themselves with facility and intelligence in the forms of arithmetical language; and to think patiently, vigorously, and accurately, and have a becoming confidence in their own powers.

Astronomy corrected. By H B. Philbrook, Counselor-at-Law. New York: John Polhemus. Pp. 55.

This little volume, says the author, "is respectfully submitted to the reading world, in order to remove the errors that have so long deluded mankind in reference to astronomical problems." These "errors" relate to the creation and the causes of the motions of the solar system, to Laplace's nebular hypothesis, and Newton's gravitation. It is not new to have the law of gravitation assailed, nor is it entirely novel to have the portion in regulating the universe that has been assigned to it referred to the interstellar ether. Mr. Philbrook is, we believe, the first to tell us precisely how the ether acts.

Lowest Forms of Water Animals. By N. d'Anvers. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 59. Price, 50 cents.

This is one of the "Science Ladders" series of illustrated natural history readers, the special purpose of which is to teach the great laws of the animal kingdom in language simple enough to be intelligible to every child who can read. It teaches what an animal is and what protoplasm is, and describes the rhizopoda, sponges, infusoria, hydras, medusæ, sea-anemones, coral, polyps, polyzoa, and "some tiny creatures with water-works."

Compendium of the Tenth Census, June 1, 1880. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Part I, pp. 924; Part II, pp. 817.

The scope of the census of 1880 was greatly enlarged, and its machinery was much changed from that under which the previous censuses were taken. The information collected by it has been much more extensive, more varied, and presumably more accurate than has been gathered for any other decade in the history of our country. Opportunity was given to begin the inquiries in departments admitting such anticipation, several months before the first of June, and thus to give a more careful and exhaustive character to the investigation; and the work of making the enumerations was given to persons especially appointed for it, and not to officers who already had other duties. Except as to churches, libraries, and private schools, the statistics of which have been delayed in compilation, the tables embraced in the "Compendium" touch all the general classes of statistics which will be embraced in a more detailed form in the more extended publication of the series of quarto volumes. Part I contains the statistics of population and agriculture; Part II, those of manufactures; power used in manufactures; mining, railroads, steam-craft, canals, telegraphs, and telephones; occupations; fisheries; foreign parentage; areas, dwellings, and families; Alaska; life-insurance; fire and marine insurance; valuation and taxation; public indebtedness; newspapers and periodicals; public schools; illiteracy; defective, dependent, and delinquent classes; and mortality.

Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual Report of the State Geologist for 1882. By George H. Cook. Camden, New Jersey: F. F. Patterson. Pp. 191, with Map.

The topographical survey has been continued over 480 square miles, chiefly in the highland country of the northern part of the State. The whole area covered by this survey up to the present time is 1,740 square miles. Progress is also reported of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, which, when completed, it is hoped in the next season, will cover 5,326 of the 7,576