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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 24.djvu/670

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shallow, or "wedge-toed," as lie calls it; that the heel is too high; that the sole turns up too much at the toes. He and Camper agree on these points. The evils attending shoes too short will be more readily perceived when it is understood that the foot is lengthened in walking, and more in running and jumping.

The degree of elongation depends upon the shape of the foot. Long, slim, high-arched feet elongate most; short, fleshy feet least. In the first case the elongation varies from one fourth of an inch to one inch. It takes place forward and back, and the shoe should be long enough to allow for it. It is produced by the flattening of the

PSM V24 D670 Bunyons and onyxitis.jpg
Fig. 9.—Apparatus for the Treatment of Bunyons. Fig. 10.—Onyxitis of the Great Toe.

arch of the foot, when the weight of the body falls upon it; just as a carriage-spring elongates under pressure. The shoe which is just long enough when the foot is at rest, becomes too short when the elongation takes place, and the toes rise, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 13, preventing them from forming the firm pier which the anterior portion of the arch of the foot should have to rest upon, diminishing the elasticity of the organs, impairing their muscular force, and inducing the formation of corns through the rubbing of the toes against the leather. The weight of the body also crowds the toes up, and, turning the great-toe out of place, unfits it for its useful function. In-growing nails are caused by short shoes. An old poet says

"The shoe too short, the foot will wring";

and an old English couplet sums up the height of aggravating misery in these lines:

"Here's to our friends; as for our foes,
We wish them short shoes, and corns on their toes."