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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 34.djvu/288

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

Krupp, a volume entitled Krupp and De Bange, by E. Monthaye, captain in the Belgian general staff. Its object is to show that the Krupp system of ordnance is superior to the De Bange system, from which it differs in material, construction, and mode of breech-closure. The first chapter is a discussion of various methods of preparing steel for gun-metal; the second compares the construction of the Krupp and the De Bange guns; this is followed by an essay on ballistic performance, and a statement of the extent to which the European states use the Krupp guns. The next chapter answers the objections of the adherents of the French gun against the Krupp, and there is a review of the "Belgrade competition" of 1884, in which a Krupp, a De Bange, and an Armstrong gun participated. An account of a visit to the Krupp works concludes the main part of the book, and to this is appended an analysis by another hand of some criticisms made upon Captain Monthaye's book. The volume is illustrated with diagrams, views, and a portrait of Alfred Krupp.

A decidedly vigorous pamphlet has been contributed to the "Questions of the Day" series, by Mr. J. S. Moore, entitled Friendly Letters to American Farmers and Others (Putnam, 25 cents). Its purpose is to show the people of the country, regarded as consumers, what the present tariff costs them. The letters are strengthened by abundant statistics, and the following specimen headings will indicate their character: "What it costs the Farmer for Lumber," "What it costs the Farmer for Crockery, Glassware, and Cooking Utensils," "Female Labor on Farms and in Factories," "As to Luxuries and Necessities," and "The Champion Tariff Swindle of the World."

The subject of the next number of the "Questions of the Day" series is American Prisons in the Tenth United States Census (Putnam, 25 cents). It is by Frederick H. Wines, special agent of the tenth census, and presents the numbers of inmates in the prisons of the country, and the crimes for which they are imprisoned, in a great variety of aspects, such as with regard to birthplace, age, sex, color, length of term, and number of arrests by the police. The figures are embodied in a discussion which includes suggestions for the improvement of certain State and national prison laws. An interesting statement, which reverses the popular judgment somewhat, shows the proportion of prisoners to the number of residents from each of twenty foreign countries. From this it appears that the West Indies send us the most criminals, 1 in 117, while the best showing is made by the Austrians (including Hungarians and Bohemians), 1 in 1,936. The Scandinavians stand next to the Austrians, and the Hollanders are third. The Germans are eighth, with one prisoner in 949 German-born residents, the English eleventh, French twelfth, Irish fourteenth, 1 in 350, Italians sixteenth, and Chinese next below them, with a proportion of 1 in 199.

Two editions of the President's Message of 1887 (Putnam, each 25 cents) have been received. One contains annotations by R. R. Bowker, which embrace a large number and variety of facts and figures showing the receipts and expenses of the Government for a number of years, the effects of buying bonds at a premium, what the tariff tax amounts to on many items of the consumer's purchases, the percentages of tax laid on important articles at various times since 1789, the variation of wages in Europe and different parts of this country, the amount of wool raised in the United States, the operations of trusts, etc. The other edition is illustrated by Thomas Nast, in his well known style.

The most extended and important papers in Reports from the Consuls of the United States, No. 93 (Department of State), are those on "The Cost of Manufacturing Print-Cloths in Massachusetts, Lancashire, and Switzerland," by J. Schoenhof; "The Province of Kiang-su," by J. D. Kennedy; "The Exhibition for the Prevention of Accidents to be held at Berlin in 1889," by F. Raine; "The Trade of South America," by John E. Bacon; "The Trade and Industries of Russia," by Charlton H. Way; and "The Resources and Trade Relations of Japan," by T. R. Jernigan.

The pamphlet on Aspects of Education, by Oscar Browning (Industrial Education Association, 20 cents), is a contribution to the history of pedagogy. It discusses the