by the Woader or Woadman, while there is some indication of another material in the names Madder, Madderer, and Madderman occurring in the Hundred Rolls. The Fullers, Fullertons, Fullersons, and Fullmans undertook the process of whitening the cloth, if it was to be white, in which they were assisted by the Walkers, who trod it with their feet, accompanied by the Beaters, Beatermans, Bates, Batts, and Battmans, who used sticks instead of heels and toes.
The designation of the process is seen to give a name to all engaged in a special work, just as at present, and further to be adopted as a family name by some who perhaps attained notable excellence over their fellows, or were led by chance or caprice to adopt the title of their calling as their own surname. The list might be indefinitely extended. Tuck and Tucker, Sticher, Seamer, Sower, Braider, Wash and Washer, Lavender and Launder, terms formerly designating the cleansing of linen, are illustrations to the point, and many others can easily be gathered by any one having the time and patience for such research.
Particular articles of apparel, either in the course of manufacture, or completed and in use, have left their imprint in several family names. The hat gave us the Hatts and Hattars; also, according to Taylor, the Blocks, Blockets, Blockers, and Blockmans, the last four taking their names from the wooden instrument on which the hats were shaped. Caps gave us the Cappers and the Capers; smocks, a loose, shirt-like outer garment worn by peasants and workingmen, the Smockers and Smookers; the pilch, a fur cloak, the Pilchers, Pulchers, and Pitchers. The manufacture of belts gave a name to the Girdles, Girdlers, and Girdleys, while the wearing of laces originated Lacer, Lacy, Pointer, and Poynter. The use of furs originated the Pelters and the Furriers. The cowl, as an appendage to a great-coat, was much in use when family names were growing, hence Cowler, Cowley, Cowlet and the like; while another name for the same article originated the Hoods and the Hoodmans. Fastening the clothing with buttons originated the Buttons and Buttoners; with buckles, the Buckles and Bucklars; while the use of pins, at first of great size, gave names to Pinners, Pinnets, and Pinneys; and the manufactture of a small bag for the safe keeping of money was the original employment of our Pursers, Bursars, and Pouchers. A call for precious stones was answered by the Jewells, Agates, Rubys, and perhaps Crystalls, and the necessity for light in the houses and streets was met by the Candlers, Lampers, Lighters, Links, Linkers, and Torchers.
Mention of the last classes suggests the nature of the service they rendered to our belated ancestors in the unlighted, muddy, and otherwise dangerous streets of mediæval London, and this