Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 42.djvu/876

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

branches of the subject as the tests of the senses, the powers of judgment, the times of mental processes, the nature of the association of ideas, the limits and varieties of memory, the effects of fatigue, the relation of mind and body, and so on. A second important part of the exhibit will consist of a working laboratory, in which tests will be made upon all who choose to subject themselves to them. The tests are necessarily simple in character, and have for their object the determination of normal averages in respect to various forms of vision, of tactile sensation, of times and accuracy of judgment, association and reaction, of the nature of association, and the like. And, thirdly, a department in which results will be exhibited, will attempt to show the practical importance of these investigations and their various applications in the study of child growth, the study of abnormal forms of mental phenomena, and the like.—Dr. Sanford, of Clark University, gave an account of some of the studies in progress there. One of these related to the fluctuation in mental power at different portions of the day, as determined by the capacity to remember a series of arbitrary impressions. Another research gave an account of the frequency and character of the dreams of subjects who at once record their dreams upon awakening from them. The frequency of dreams and their concentration in the early hours of the morning, the large factors that recent events contribute to them, appeared as some of the results of this investigation.—Another interesting paper, presented by Dr. Witmer, of the University of Pennsylvania, gave an account of the research upon the æsthetics of visual form and attempting to answer the question, What are the most pleasing forms and proportions in the great variety of figures and conditions?—A paper by Prof. Bryan, of the University of Indiana, giving an account of the development of motor power in children at different ages, and bringing out many significant and important results, was presented; also papers by Dr. Nichols, of Harvard University, presenting some novel experiments upon illusions of rotation and upon the sense of pain; by Prof. Pace, of the Catholic University of Washington, on the power of judging the thickness of surfaces held between the thumb and forefinger; and papers by Dr. Chamberlain, on the Relation of Psychology and Anthropology, and by Dr. Aikens, on An Analysis of Cause.—The meeting adjourned to next December at Columbia College, New York, the officers of the association being: President, G. Stanley Hall, of Clark University; vice-president, George T. Ladd, of Yale University; and secretary, Joseph Jastrow, of the University of Wisconsin.

 

Arbitration with English Trades Unions.—The English Labor Commission has completed its examination of the conditions, etc., of every branch of labor, except agriculture, in the kingdom. Its results, embodying the testimony of more than four hundred and thirty witnesses, as summarized by Mr. John Rae, in the Contemporary Review, make it clear that there has been during the last twenty years a remarkable growth in all parts of the kingdom of the institutions that make for industrial peace—the Board of Arbitration, the Joint Committee of Conciliation, and the sliding scale. The Board of Conciliation, the essential feature of which was a full interchange of views between the representatives of the parties—employers and hands—face to face, was started in 1866. The original board, formed by Mr. Mundella for the hosiery trade, was short-lived, but the principle was adopted, and still prevails. The first Board of Arbitration, which provides for binding reference to an umpire in case the conference fails, started in the iron trade by Sir Rupert Kettle in 1869, is still efficient; and a second board, started in 1872, has likewise proved its usefulness and its right to live. Since the establishment of these boards in the northern and midland counties of England, respectively, there has been no strike in the northern district, and only one insignificant strike in the middle district. In fact, "strikes, and even the very disposition to strike, seem to be thoroughly stamped out in this [the iron and steel] industry." In many trades there is a great belief in conciliation, but a great dislike to arbitration. Many think the "long jaw" (as the Conciliation Conference is called) "sufficient to remove all difficulties, and make both parties in the end see eye to eye; but the members of the manufactured iron trade are most decided in counting concilia-