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command of pecuniary means; and there is, therefore, reason to believe that what is done under his direction will be well done, and will not be marred or weakened by the perfunctory spirit which so often accompanies state action.


Factors in American Civilization. Popular Lectures and Discussions before the Brooklyn Ethical Association. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 417. Price, $2.

This volume, the third in the series issued by the Brooklyn Ethical Association, certainly does not fall below its predecessors in interest or the range of its topics. Five of the addresses relate to national life; two lectures are devoted respectively to commerce, the status of woman, and the labor question; while the subjects considered in the remaining three papers are sufficiently diverse—penal methods, charitable work, and the drink habit.

Beginning with the idea of the nation. Dr. De Garmo finds it to be the ultimate unit in civilization. We advance by helping each nation to unhampered development upon its own lines, not by breaking down national barriers. The discussion discloses that Mr. Spencer's idea of government is often misapprehended, especially when drawn from old editions of Social Statics. Our American civilization is, however, the product of numerous factors. The first of these in time, those furnished by Nature, are described by Rev. John Kimball, who agrees with Prof. Shaler that even the boundaries of the civil war may have been determined by the distribution of the Cretacean limestone.

What America owes to the Old World is epitomized by Mr. Palmer as everything except itself. From England we inherit our language, literature, trial by jury, and various institutions; from the Netherlands, our cherished ideas of religious tolerance, popular education, and the freedom of the press. The written ballot is due to the same source, the town meeting is (Germanic in its origin; while to Spain, France, and continental Europe we are indebted in other matters.

Dr. Janes shows what the military habit costs us, contrasts the warlike and industrial type, and leads us to question whether the cultivation of the militant spirit pays. Mr. Robert Taylor discourses upon the evolution of railways and illustrates the great progress made in transportation. To move the freight of the United States in 1892 would have required five times the working force of the world one thousand years ago. Foreign commerce is ably handled by Mr. Coombs, and is followed by the inevitable discussion between the advocates of free trade and protection.

An eloquent plea for the political equality of woman is made by Rev. Mr. Chadwick, who remarks that if the objections to woman suffrage could be shut up together by themselves they would dispose of each other. Interesting statistics and suggestions in regard to the economic position of woman are also given by Caroline B. Le Row. Those interested in charities will find a comprehensive paper on the subject by Dr. Warner. Elsewhere in the volume, in an essay upon labor, Mr. Sullivan demands justice instead of charity. From another standpoint Mr. Gilman deals very fairly with the labor question, and without "preaching profit-sharing as a panacea for industrial woes" still recommends it as an improvement upon the wages system. A review of penal methods and institutions is contributed by Mr. McKeen, and an investigation of the drink habit by Dr. Crothers. Finally, philosophizing upon history, Mr. Powell concludes the book.

The discussions following the lectures and the lists of collateral readings suggested contribute much to the value of the work.

The Yachts and Yachtsmen of America: A Standard Work of Reference. Henry A. Mott, Editor. New York: International Yacht Publishing Company. Vol. I. Pp. 692, with Eighty-nine Plates. Price, $15.

This sumptuous work is further defined on the title-page as A History of Yachting and of Yacht Clubs, as well as of the Various Yachts, with Biographies of the Founders and Members of the Different Clubs of the United States and Canada. Yachtsmen of all clubs have long desired to have a work for ready reference, which, besides reliable information relative to the yachts belonging to members of their respective clubs, would give facts