Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 45.djvu/881

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
859
POPULAR MISCELLANY.

materials and of finished products from the mineral resources of the State at the same times. A sketch of the history of the surveys in the State has also been prepared by Mr. Smith. They were begun with the appointment of Michael Tuomey as Professor of Geology in the State University in 1847, when he was expected to spend about four months in each year in field observations. The next year he was made State Geologist. An appropriation was first made for the survey in 1854. Prof. Tuomey died in 185*7; his last reports were edited and brought out by Prof. John W. Mallet, chemist to the survey; and the survey was discontinued. The second survey, under Prof. Smith, was begun in 1873. A detailed account of its several stages and departments, with the papers published by it, is given in the memoir. The co-operation of the United States survey with the State survey, begun in 1879, is recognized as having been "very distinctly advantageous." "In retrospect one can, however," says Prof. Smith, "easily see how these benefits might have been materially increased by more frequent conferences and consequently more thorough mutual understandings and adjustments." The survey has cost during the past eleven years $75,847, or an average of about $6,900 a year. For the whole period of twenty-one years during which the survey has been active, the aggregate cost has been $90,597, an average of $4,314 per annum. Since the organization of the survey, the tax rate of the State has been reduced over fifty per cent, without diminishing the revenues. The increase in the value of property in certain sections of the State that has rendered this possible has been due in the main to the development of the mineral wealth, and to this the survey publications have contributed a certain undetermined share. Some of the regions of the State in which the mining of coal and iron had since assumed vast proportions were untouched when the earlier reports directed attention by maps, analyses, and otherwise, to their great resources; and very recently the survey has demonstrated the existence of profitable areas in the coal measures heretofore untried; has pointed out a source of wealth in the phosphatic marls of certain sections; has shown that gold may be mined with I profit at many points; has demonstrated that clays suitable for the manufacture of fine porcelain ware, fire brick, tiles, and other articles occur in. practically limitless quantity in many sections; and has pointed out the places where good marbles and building stones may be had for the quarrying. All these have as yet not been turned to account.

 

Meanings of Japanese Fans.—The study of Japanese fans is regarded, in Mrs. Charlotte M. Salwey's book on the subject, as substantially the study of the history, religion, etiquette, daily manners and customs, peace and war, trade, games, and literature, in fact, of the whole civilization and art of the country. From the sixth century downward fans were a part of the national costume. Every fan belonging to every rank had its meaning, and was used in its own particular way according to a strict code of etiquette. The flat fan, or uchiwa, was introduced into Japan by the Chinese, and has been made in different shapes and used in many different ways. The cheapest and most usual forms are common objects in the West. One of its most curious varieties is the iron war fan, invented in the eleventh century for the use of military commanders, either for direction and signaling or as a shield for defense. It is made of leather and iron. The water fans are made of bamboo and thinly lacquered, so that they may be dipped in water to secure extra coolness while fanning. Another kind of uchiwa is the revolving white fan, which whirls around its stick and can be rolled up. Another strong, flat paper fan is used as bellows to blow the charcoal fire in the kitchen. The agi are folding fans; among them the hi wood fans are the most beautiful. They are painted with flowers and tied with white silk. Anciently they were hung with artificial flowers made of silk. These were the court fans, and different flowers were appropriated by different great families, so that a fan answered the purpose of armorial bearings. Folding fans also served the purpose of ensigns in war, and an enormous fan, mita agi, giant fan, was carried in processions in honor of the sun goddess. Children and dolls have fans of their own. Dancers and jugglers carry peculiar fans. The tea fan,