lar army, and number—officers and men—about a hundred and twenty-five thousand; those between the ages of thirty-two and forty-four constitute the Landwehr (militia), and number about eighty-four thousand. Thus, while no great army seems to exist in Switzerland, the whole able-bodied male population of the country can readily be made into an army. The natural defenses of the country have been utilized to the best advantage, and great care has been expended upon numerous defensive works on the frontiers. No Canton may have more than three hundred men under arms. If disputes arise between Cantons they shall abstain from all recourse to violence or arms, and shall submit themselves to the decision taken upon these disputes in conformity with federal regulations. That is to say, in case of necessity the Federal Council summons the Assembly to act; or it may demand the aid of other Cantons, which are bound to give it, or it is authorized to raise troops and employ them on condition of immediately summoning the Cantonal Councils if the number of troops raised should exceed two thousand, or if they remain under arms more than three weeks.
Other articles of the Constitution regulate the military training and employment of citizens; the power of the Federal authorities in regard to public works; the maintenance of free, compulsory, and non sectarian education; the principles of taxation and cantonal tariffs, consistently with general free trade; the right of domicile; municipal and communal rights, and the general toleration of religious belief and worship. Nevertheless, the Order of Jesuits and the societies affiliated therewith may not be admitted into any part of Switzerland; and all intervention by their members in the church or in the schools is forbidden. "The exercises of the Salvation Army fell under the laws of the municipalities against nuisances; the final judicial decision in this case being in effect that while persons of every religious belief are free to worship in Switzerland, none in so doing are free seriously to annoy their neighbors." Freedom of the press, of local trial, and trial by jury are also guaranteed. Previous to 1848 the different Cantons conducted their postal service by different methods; but since that time its control and management, together with that of the railway system of the country, have become exclusive functions of the Federal Government.
Attention is next asked to the Cantonal political organization and government. Every Canton and demi-Canton is sovereign and independent in local affairs and in all other matters that are not limited by the Federal Constitution. In respect to their forms
- J. B. Sullivan, The Commonwealth of Switzerland.