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THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE.

like. The characteristic of almost all modern tax words or terms is indefiniteness; and probably in no other department of knowledge is there such a lack of exactness in respect to definitions. This to a student may seem at first to be a factor of no little embarrassment, and as assimilating him to the condition of the man who couldn't see the forest because of the multitude of trees; but with the exception of the definitions of tax and taxation, this condition of affairs really constitutes no obstacle in the way of clearly reasoning and determining as to what should be the fundamental principles of taxation.

 

THE RACIAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE.

A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY.

(Lowell Institute Lectures, 1896.)
By WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY, Ph. D.,

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY; LECTURER IN ANTHROPO-GEOGRAPHY AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

VIII.—THE BASQUES.

THE Basques, or Euskaldunak, as they call themselves, on account of the primitive character of their institutions, but more particularly because of the archaic features of their language, have long attracted the attention of ethnologists. Few writers on European travel have been able to keep their hands off this interesting people. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining information from the original Basque sources, a wide range of speculation has been offered for cultivation. Interest for a long time mainly centered in the language; the physical characteristics were largely neglected. The last ten years have, however, witnessed a remarkable change in this respect. A series of brilliant investigations has been offered to science, based almost entirely upon the study of the living population. As a consequence, this people has within a decade emerged from the hazy domain of romance into the clear light of scientific knowledge. Much yet remains to be accomplished; but enough is definitely known to warrant many conclusions both as to their physical origin and ethnic affinities.[1]


  1. The best modern authorities on the Basques are Broca, Sur l'origine et la répartition de la langue Basque. Revue d'Anthropologie, series i, iv, 1875, pp. 1-53; R. Collignon, Anthropologie du sud-ouest de la France, Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie, series ill, i, 1895, fasc. 4; De Aranzadi y Unamuno, El Pueblo Euskalduna, San Sebastian 1889; Hoyos Sainz and De Aranzadi, Un Avance à la antropologia de España, Madrid, 1892; Oloriz Distribucion geográfica del indice cefálieo en España, Madrid, 1894; and ibid., La talla