Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 52.djvu/480

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statements show that the annual receipts of the forest administration of Prussia are about $14,000,000, and the expenses about $8,000,000, leaving a net revenue to the Government of about $6,000,000. The annual revenue from the Government forests of France and Algiers exceeds $6,000,000, and the expenses for 1896 were estimated at $3,300,000. The net revenue of the great forest areas of British India for 1894-'95 was 7,415,590 rupees, or about $3,000,000. In British India the varied climate and the difficult sylvicultural conditions are similar to those found within the forest reserves and public forested lands of the United States. The total area of forest land under the control of the forest service of India in 1894–'95 was 112,952 square miles, of which 74,271 square miles were reserved forests, 7,090 protected forests, and 31,591 unclassed state forests. The total length of boundaries demarcated to June 30, 1895, in provinces under the Government of India alone was upward of 60,000 miles, and an area of 33,420 square miles is covered by topographic surveys. In a territory of 30,963 square miles, fires are kept in check, and 28,913 square miles are fully protected at a cost of about $2.60 per square mile, or less than one half cent per acre per annum.

The area administered by the forest service yielded, during the year 1894–'95, 46,000,000 cubic feet of timber, 100,000,000 cubic feet of fuel, 134,000,000 bamboos, and minor products to the value or 3,000,000 rupees or more. In this connection it should be borne in mind that systematic Government forestry in India is of recent growth. The first act was passed in 1865, although the management of the teak forests of Pegu was inaugurated some ten years before.

In Canada, where the physical and topographic conditions greatly resemble our own, the management of the Government forests devolves upon the department of Crown Lands, with an administrative bureau which is charged with public instruction in forestry as well as the supervision of the forested districts. The administration is under the charge of officers denominated Crown Lands and Timber Agents, having under them experienced woodmen called forest rangers, fire rangers, etc.

The total revenue from lumbering operations in the province of Quebec for the year ending June 30, 1896, amounted to $951,098.92. In Ontario the forested territory is divided into timber "berths" of different sizes, which are sold at auction to the highest bidder. At the last sale, in 1892, an average price was paid of $3,657.18 per square mile, subject to stumpage dues. The land is not sold, but is reserved for settlers, the person who has bought the right to cut the timber retaining the control of the land until it is required for settlement.