resent American varieties. Most of the stock came from California, and much of it was undoubtedly infested with San Jose scale when it was received. There is, therefore, throughout these northern apple orchards, a mild infestation with this scale. The Japanese are very enthusiastic in their efforts to gain all the benefits of western civilization, and this is shown in horticultural as well as in other fields. The three leading nurseries, therefore, of Japan have been very active during the last twenty or thirty years in importing the different varieties of pear, peach and apple from America, and all three of these nursery districts have become infested with San Jose scale, evidently from such importations from California, where the scale has been widely distributed for thirty years. Outside these nurseries, however, in central and southern Japan, the San Jose scale did not occur, except where it had been introduced on new stock from the nurseries referred to. The old native pear orchards were free from scale, except where replants had been made of American varieties, or new native stock, to fill in breaks in the orchards. The infestation was very often just beginning and immediately surrounded the replants. In all Japan, therefore, in the little house gardens and temple grounds where were cherry, plum and other trees suitable for San Jose scale, this insect did not occur, except where the evidence was very plain of its recent introduction as indicated. Without going into details of the evidence, it is sufficient to say that the conditions in Japan are essentially the same as in this country. The San Jose scale is a recent comer. It was, in fact, not known in Japan prior to the year 1897, when its presence there was first determined, but it has now been scattered pretty widely by nursery stock, exactly as in this country, and occurs under similar conditions; in other words, only where it has been recently introduced. The investigation showed very distinctly that Japan could not be considered responsible for the San Jose scale.
Explorations in China.
Investigations up to this point, while freeing Japan from the onus of giving the San Jose scale to the world, left the problem unsettled as to the original home of this insect. China remained as the most likely place of origin, and the writer proceeded to China to continue his explorations there. While in Japan a good deal of information was gained relative to fruit conditions in China, from English, German and American residents who were spending the summer months in Japan to escape the rather trying climate of China. In brief, it may be stated that deciduous fruits are grown from the Shanghai region northward, the peach being practically the only fruit grown to any extent about Shanghai. The great apple district of