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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 65.djvu/440

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436
POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

industry the erstwhile farmers took as naturally as a duck to water. From 65 per cent, to 70 per cent, of these immigrants of poor physique remain in New York City, to add to the congestion of the lower east side. Of the remaining 30 per cent, the majority go to Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago and other large cities, where they are rapidly building up Ghettos similar to that of New York.

The geographical distribution of the Hebrews landed in New York during 1903 is shown in the table given below.

State. Number of
 Hebrews.
Ratio to Total
Hebrews Landed.
New York 50,945 67 per cent.
Pennsylvania 8,206 11 "
Massachusetts 4,130 5 "
Illinois 3,170 4 "
New Jersey 2,004 3 "
Ohio 1,521 2 "
Maryland 1,074 1 .5 "
Connecticut 1,020 1 .5 "
All other states 4,133 5 "
Total 76,203 100 per cent.

Four fifths of the male adults are skilled in some light occupation, and this fact, coupled with their physical incapacity for hard labor, forces them into the sweat-shop. The addition each year of thousands of these sweat-shop workers to the lower east side of New York has produced a condition of affairs that beggars description.

Manager Frankel in 'The Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the United Hebrew Charities of New York,' October, 1901, says:

No matter how earnestly we labor to care for the Jewish poor, already in our city, our burdens are being constantly increased by the thousands who come from Europe every year and settle in our midst. It is worth noting in passing, that, comparatively speaking, few of these newly arrived immigrants come to us for assistance until after they have been in New York for a year or two. Either they have sufficient means of their own to bring them to America and to support them for a period after their arrival or they have been sent for by relatives, who are able to give them assistance for some time.

But the evil conditions of the houses and the deteriorating influences of the sweat shops of the great Ghetto soon work havoc among these people, and after an interval of two or three years they come to us in numbers for relief. . . . Furthermore, in line with our belief, that the ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, and that as law-abiding citizens of our country, we should not run against public sentiment nor pose as violators of the law, we have come to an understanding with the London Board of Guardians whereby the unwise shipment of Jewish immigrants, who are not adapted to conditions of life in this country, will be stopped. Hitherto we have had to bear the burden which should properly have been borne by our British co-religionists. They were perfectly willing to furnish free transportation to those persons who were unable to make a living in England, but who believed if they could only reach the shores of America (which means New York to all Jewish immigrants) their troubles would be at an end. . . .