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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 65.djvu/443

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439
IMMIGRATION.

Otho the Great of Germany and forced to accommodate themselves to a settled, peaceful existence. They adopted Christianity and western political institutions and showed themselves as progressive in civilization as they had been skilful in war and pillage. The last of the line of Arpad, Andrew III., died childless in 1301, and the crown became elective. The first Hapsburg to be elected king of Hungary was Albert V. of Austria (1438), and the House of Hapsburg has since considered the kingdom of Hungary a part of its heritage. Owing to civil strife and rival claimants for the throne, the Turks obtained a foothold in the country about 1541, and their possessions were retained until finally driven out by Prince Eugene in 1718. The long stay of the Turks in Hungary was made possible by Magyar jealousy of the growth of Germanic influence. This feeling has never disappeared and was largely responsible for the brave defense of the young queen Maria Theresa by Magyars when her throne was threatened by Prussia, France, Bavaria and Saxony. After 1815 a great revival of national feeling was manifest among the Magyars. This movement was characterized by a demand for personal and constitutional liberty and a remarkable activity in literature. Many liberal reforms were achieved, but the suppression of the misguided revolt of 1848 set back the cause of national constitutional liberty twenty years. In 1867 the wise and good Franz Joseph saw the necessity of conciliating his Magyar subjects, accentuated by the humiliating defeat of Austria by the Prussians in 1866. The result was the dual monarchy as it exists to-day with a complete restoration of the constitutional liberties of the Magyar. Under the new order of things the Magyars have performed wonders in the establishment of commercial and industrial prosperity. Their progress in agriculture and manufactures, in railroad building and architecture, has been the marvel of Europe. And their economic progress and commercial expansion have earned for them the title of the Japanese of Europe.

From a country so prosperous and so greatly favored by nature as Hungary, we can scarcely expect to receive the best type of her subjects as immigrants. It is probable that the best type of Magyar has no inclination to leave his native land, and necessity compels but a very small number to emigrate. The Magyar immigrants are usually unskilled laborers and find employment chiefly in the mining states; 36 per cent, of their number landed being destined to Pennsylvania. Physically they are active and strong, and 90 per cent, can read and write. In fact, the Magyar seems an ideal immigrant but for one fault, his lack of permanency. Their intense national feeling and love for their native country make them, like the Englishman, slow to adopt American citizenship. They have a tendency to go back to Hungary and in flitting back and forth from Europe to America are