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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 73.djvu/381

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by the number of members, is given in the last column of the table. Thus, Prussia, which has a population of 37,300,000 furnishes 4 men who are members of all 7 societies, 1 of 6, 2 of 5, 5 of 4, 3 of 3, and 2 of 2, making 17 in all. The number of memberships is 77, or an average of 4.5 societies to each member. On the average, one Prussian in 2,000,000, appears in Table II.

Prom an examination of Table III. it appears that, with the exception of one botanist from Java, who should perhaps be added to the group from Holland, no member resides in Asia, Africa, South America or Oceanica. With the same exception, no member comes from a colony or subsidiary country. The only members from North America are from the United States, and no members come from Scotland, Ireland or Wales. The number from the United States is no greater than that from Saxony which has about one twentieth the population. This is in part offset by the fact that the two English speaking nations, England and the United States, show a higher average number of societies per member than any other nations except Italy and Belgium. The very small ratio of members to population in Russia is largely due to the vast sparsely settled tracts of that country where advanced intellectual work is impossible.

Grouping the members according to cities, we have, Paris, 12; London, 10; Berlin, 10; Vienna, 4; Leipzig, 4; Stockholm, 3; St. Petersburg, 3; Copenhagen, 3. It will be noticed that, with the exception of Leipzig, each of these cities is the capital of its country. All the members from France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, Denmark and Java come from the capitals of those countries. Of the entire 87, 58 or nearly two thirds reside in capital cities. The average membership of these men is also higher, being 4.3 for those in capitals and 3.9 for the others. Ten cities contain two members each, and seventeen, one each.

A grouping according to the sciences is given in Table IV., in a form similar to Table III. The successive columns give the name of the science, the number of members in 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2 societies, respectively, the total number of members, the total number of societies, the average number of societies per member, and four columns indicating the country to which the members belong. The first of these columns headed G, for Germany, includes Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden and Wurtemberg; E includes England and the United States; F, France; M, the other countries.

In eight of the sciences, the number of members is fairly distributed, varying from 8 to 11. None appear in mechanics, 3 only in agriculture, and 5 in geography. The grade, or average membership is remarkably high in chemistry, 5.5, with astronomy second, 4.9. The average for all is 4.1. Of the 10 members belonging to all seven societies 4 are chemists. The distribution according to nations is