dent of Tokyo Imperial University, was one of the pioneers of modern education in Japan and a man of great ability and influence. Such men would wield power under any system, and in Japan full advantage is taken of their abilities. The power of the president, however, is sharply limited in certain particulars where in America it is possibly too often unchecked. For example, professors are appointed by the minister of education, but "in each case that professor shall be appointed who shall have been chosen at an election held by the professors of his particular college." Professors, while not well paid in Japan, occupy a position of much more importance and dignity than in America. They are elected for three years, but may be, and are, reelected indefinitely. They receive only from $600 to $2,000 per year, but this is relatively much more than the equivalent sum in America, and they have a pension system, are paid part salary when relieved from duty for any reason, are given periods of leave of absence, are sent abroad for study in rotation, are intrusted with important government investigations at home and missions abroad, and are treated with every courtesy and respect. It is one of the curious contradictions met constantly in Japan, that in an empire a man of title gets less recognition and a university professor more than in the United States. It is true that in Japan, as in America, the professor must console himself with the honor for the inadequacies of his salary. Both that and traveling allowances are small when measured against the cost of living. Engineering professors, at least—I can not speak as to others—derive supplementary income from consulting work, though there is a strong public opinion which prevents this from degenerating into a mere scramble for dollars.
Professors, while poorly paid in Japan, are relatively numerous. At Tokyo the instructional staff consists of 6 directors, 156 professors, 93 assistant professors, and 110 lecturers; a total of 356. In addition there is an elaborate staff of university officers. At Kyoto, aside from these general officials there are 4 directors, 85 professors, 53 assistant professors, and 41 lecturers; 183 in all. Certain peculiarities of Japanese university organization will be illustrated by listing the professors in two of the colleges of the University at Tokyo. For convenience the College of Law and the College of Engineering may be chosen. In the former they are: Constitution, 1; public law, 1; civil code, 4; commercial code, 2; maritime law, 1; code of civil procedure and law of bankruptcy, 2; criminal code, 1; code of criminal procedure, 1; political economy, 5; finance, 1; statistics, 1; politics, 1; history of politics, 1; diplomatic history, 1; colonization, 1; law of administration, 2; public international law, 2; private international law, 1; history of legal institutions, 1; comparative history of legal institutions, 1; Roman law, 1; English law, 1; jurisprudence, 1. In the College of Engineering the list of professors includes: Civil engineering, 4;