Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 80.djvu/258

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graduating with the doctor's degree, of each school. The degree maybe given either for completion of the regular course or for a satisfactory piece of research conducted under the auspices of University Hall. To the latter admission is either by graduation from the university with gakushi rank or by examination. Thus the way is open to the highest degree for the non-college trained man who is capable of doing research work and satisfies the faculty, or the graduates, as to his ability. This provision for the exceptional man is, I believe, especially commendable and stands in contrast with the growing tendency of universities in the United States to standardize everything. Degrees in Japan open the way to appointments on the bench, in the civil service, and to responsible positions in mercantile life. They are, therefore, much in demand, and there are always many more applications for admission to the universities than can possibly be accepted. At Kyoto there are now 984 students, of whom 70 are in University Hall, or, as we should say, are graduate students. At Tokyo there are over 5,000 students and there are now nearly 10,000 alumni. Of 5,737 admitted in the years 1905 to 1909, inclusive, 1,076 were graduates of the colleges, 4,709 came from the higher schools, and 1,029 were admitted by examination. Of those who enter the university a large number remain to graduate. At Kyoto the proportion is 70 per cent.; a sure test of the quality both of students and professors, though passing standards in examinations are low, 60 being a passing mark. If, however, one may judge by a very brief experience in meeting university men in Japan, few who are unfit survive. Degrees in Japan have one further peculiarity. They are revocable for anything which involves moral culpability. The Hakushi have the power of revoking as well as recommending degrees, though a three fourths vote is necessary for that purpose.

The University at Tokyo supports no dormitory, and at Kyoto most of the students lodge outside the grounds. They, as in the lower schools, wear uniforms and pay moderate tuition fees. Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain, speaking from his long experience says: "As for the typical Japanese student, he belongs to that class of youth who are the schoolmaster's delight—quiet, intelligent, deferential, studious almost to excess. His only marked fault is a tendency common to all subordinates in Japan—a tendency to wish to steer the ship himself." To the stray visitor Japanese students seem much like those in America. Their actual greater age is not apparent, since in Japan nobody looks as old as he is. They are generally sturdy, well set-up looking, young men. Formerly they devoted too little attention, it is said, to physical culture, but the introduction of gymnastics, changes in diet, and the introduction of sports has worked wonders. A professor in the University of Tokyo struck an answering chord when he remarked to a group of American visitors, "Yes, the campus is very beautiful—but it is not