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form of the other person (in the sun), the joints of the one (Rik and Sâman) are the joints of the other, the name of the one (ut) is the name of the other.

6. He is lord of the worlds beneath that (the self in the eye), and of all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing to the vînâ (lyre), sing him, and from him also they obtain wealth.

7. He who knowing this sings a Sâman, sings to both (the adhidaivata and adhyâtma self, the person in the sun and the person in the eye, as one and the same person). He obtains through the one, yea, he obtains the worlds beyond that, and the wishes of the Devas;

8. And he obtains through the other the worlds beneath that, and the wishes of men. Therefore an Udgâtri priest who knows this, may say (to the sacrificer for whom he officiates);

9. "What wish shall I obtain for you by my songs?" For he who knowing this sings a Sâman is able to obtain wishes through his song, yea, through his song.


1. There were once three men, well-versed in udgîtha[1], Silaka Sâlâvatya, Kaikitâyana Dâlbhya, and Pravâhana Gaivali. They said: "We are well-versed in udgîtha. Let us have a discussion on udgîtha."

2. They all agreed and sat down. Then Pravâhana Gaivali[2] said: "Sirs, do you both speak first,

  1. Cognisant of the deeper meanings of udgîtha, i. e. Om.
  2. He, though not being a Brâhmana, turns out to be the only one who knows the true meaning of udgîtha, i. e. the Highest Brahman.