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xxxvii
INTRODUCTION.

as our predecessors, Mr. Dickson and Professor Minayeff, have done before us. We could not consider, even after their labours, that a new translation of this difficult text would be superfluous. And of the younger literature we have confined ourselves to the Khandhakas, both because these books, in their variety, and in the fulness of their contents, are better calculated to afford a correct view of the conditions, and the life, of that oldest and most influential of the many monkish orders, the Buddhist Samgha; and also because the Sutta-vibhanga is little more than an expulsion of the Pdtimokkha, which we have already, for the reasons just stated, determined to include 1 .

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.
H. OLDENBERG.

November, 1880.

For the Upasampada-kammava£a see the passages recurring in the Khandhakas as pointed out above, p. xix.

Additional Note on Mahavagga III, 2, 2 (vassupanayika).

As entering upon Vassa is called vassal upaga^ati or vassal upeti, we believe that upan&yika, the final member of the compound vassupanayika (entrance upon Vassa), must not be derived from upa-ni, but from upa-i (upan-i).Comp. Satapatha-Brahmana II, 3, 2, 2: ahar-ahar vai Nado Naishidho Yamam ra^dnaw dakshinata upanayati (S&ya/za : upaga^Mati). The preposition upan contained in upan-ayati will be treated of by Professor Joh. Schmidt in the 26th volume of Kuhn's Zeitschrift.