CONSTITUTION AND REVENUE — POPULATION
After a temporary subdivision the Principality was finally, on the death of the last duke of Eisenach in 1741, united into a conipa(;t whole under Ernest Augustus (1728-1748), who introduced the piinciple of primogeniture. At the Congress of Vienna a considerable increase of territory, together with the title of Grand-duke, was awarded to Duke Karl August, known as a patron of German literature.
The Grand-duke has a large private fortune, part of which he obtained in dowry with his consort. Princess Sophie of the Netherlands. He has also a civil list of 960,000 marks, or 48,000^.
Constitution and Finance.
The Constitution of the Grand-duchy was granted May 5, 1816 ; but slightly altered by the law of October 15, 1850. It was the first liberal Constitution granted in Germany. According to this charter the legislative power is vested in a Hoiise of Parliament of one Chamber. It is comi)osed of 33 members, of whom five are chosen by landowners having a yearly income of from 3,000 marks upwards ; five by other persons of the same income ; and twenty-three by the other inhabitants. The first-mentioned ten deputies are elected directly, the remaining twenty-three indirectly. All citizens over twenty-one years of age have the franchise. The Chamber meets every three years. The executive, acting under the orders of the Grand-duke, but re- sponsible to the representatives of the country, is divided into three dejiartments.
The budget is granted by the Chamber for a period of three years. That from 1899 to 1901 comprises an annual income and an annual expenditm-e of 10,461,076 marks. The State forests yield a large income, while there is a graduated tax on all incomes, the estimates for which are based on a total income for the population of 93,567,670 marks. The public debt amounted to 1,955,465 marks on January 1, 1898. The debt is more than covered by the productive capital of the State.
Area and Population.
The Grand-duchy has an area of 1,388 English square miles, and consists of the three detached districts of Weimar, Eisenach, and Neustadt, to which belong also 24 smaller exclaves. The population was 292,933 in 1875 ; 326,091 on December 1, 1890. On Dec. 2, 1895, it was 339,217. During the years from 1885 to 1890 the increase was at the rate of 0*77 per cent, per annum. Of the population in 1895, 164,631 were males and 174,586 females ; i.e. 106*0 females per 100 males. Foreigners numbered 1,572. Marriages, 1896, 2,797 ; births, 11,555 ; deaths, 6,708 ; surplus of births, 4,847. Among the births, 397 (3'4 per cent.) were stillborn, and 1,197 (10 '4 per cent.) illegitimate.
In 1895, 397 percent, of the population lived in towns with 2,000 inhabi- tants and upwards, and 60*3 per cent, in rural communes. The town of Weimar, capital and largest town of the Grand-duchy, had 26,670 inhabitants at the census of December 2, 1895. The number of emigrants in eight years was as follows : —
X X 2