RELIGION — INSTRUCTION
The Republic is divided into nineteen departments, the area and population of which were reported as follows at the last census taken (in 1876) :-
Lima . . ) Callao . /
/ 226,922 t 34,492
Huancavelica . Huanuco . \ Junin . . /
104,155 / 78,856 \ 209,871
There are, besides, many uncivilised Indians, but their numbers are absolutely unknown.
It is believed that the population is nearly stationary owing to the great infant mortality in the lower classes, as well as to small-pox and alcoholism among the Indians.
As a result of the war with Chile, the latter country has annexed the province of Tarapaca. The Chilians have also occupied the provinces of of Tacna and Arica for fourteen years. A popular vote should in 1894 have decided to which country they are to belong, but owing to the failure of nego- tiations for arriving at a modus operandi, the decision was deferred. A convention for the purpose of carrying out the plebiscite was signed at Santiago, April 16, 1898.
By the terms of the Constitution there exists absolute political, but not religious freedom, the charter prohibiting the public exercise of any other religion than the Roman Catholic, which is declared the religion of the State. But practically there is a certain amount of tolerance, there being Anglican churches and missionary schools in Callao and Lima. In 1897 an Act was passed removing certain marriage disabilities of non-Catholics, so that marriages of such persons solemnised by Diplomatic or Consular officers or by ministers of dissenting Churches shall, if registered, be valid, and those solemnised before the passing of the Act, if registered before the end of 1899, shall be valid. At the census of 1876 there were 5,087 Protestants, 498 Jews ; other religions, 27,073.
Elementary education is compulsory for both sexes, and is irce in the public schools that are maintained by the municipalities. High schools are maintained by the Government in the capitals of the departments, and in some i>rovinoes pupils pay a moderate fee. There is in Lima a central univer- .sity, called * Universidad de San Marcos,' the most ancient in America ; its charter was granted by the Emperor Carlos V. ; it has faculties of juris- prudence, medicine, political science, theology, and applied science. Lima