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possessions of West Africa constitute parts of the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon.

The total income of the upper hierarchy of the Church is calculated to amount to 300,000 niilreis. There are 93,979 parishes, each under the charge of a presbitero, or incumbent. All the conventual establishments of Portugal were suppressed by decree of May 28, 1834, and their property con- fiscated for the benefit of the State. At that period there existed in the country 632 monasteries and 118 nunneries, with above 18,000 monks and nuns, and an annual income of nearly a million sterling. This revenue was applied to the redemption of the national debt ; while a library of 30,000 volumes was set up at the former convent of San Francisco, at Lisbon, from the collections of books and manuscripts at the various monasteries. The number of Protestants in Portugal, mostly foreigners, does not exceed 500. They have chapels at Lisbon and Oporto.


By a law enacted in 1844, primary education is compulsory; but this pre- scription is far from being enforced, and only a small fraction of the children of the lower classes really attend school. According to census results the proportion of the population (including children) that could not read in 1878 was 82*4 per cent. ; in 1890, 79 '2 per cent. In 1890 there were 5,339 public and private primary schools or 10 "6 per 10,000 of population, the number of pupils being 237,791 or 471 per 10,000 of population. There were 175 primary schools for adults with 6,774 pupils. Normal schools for the train- ing of teachers are being gradually created in the chief towns. Secondary instruction is regulated by a law of December, 1894. There are 24 State lycees (one in the chief town of each district, and also at Amarante, Guima- raes, and Lamego) with (in 1897) 3,468 pupils ; a military college with (1898) 213 pupils ; many private secondary schools ; 18 seminaries (clerical) with (1897) 2,262 pupils. Commercial, industrial, and general education is sup- plied in 28 industrial schools with (1897) 3,429 students, 2 commercial elementary schools, and 2 higher technical schools at Lisbon and Oporto with (1897) 812 students.

For higher instruction there are polytechnic schools at Lisbon and Oporto, the former with (1898) 442, and the latter with 273 students; schools of medicine at Lislion (289 students), and Oporto (290 students) ; a school of agriculture at Lisbon with 104 students ; a military school (177 students) ; a naval school (56 students) ; a high school of letters (57 students) ; a school of fine art at Lisbon (303 students) and one at Oporto (105 students) ; a Con- ser\atorio at Lisbon for nnisic and dramatic art with 489 students. The University of C^oimbra (founded in 1290), has faculties of theologj' (57 students in 1898), law (602 students), medicine (195), mathematics (179), and philosophy (340 students).

The expenditure on Public Instruction, according to the budget of 1898-99, is 1,178,593 milreis, exclusive of 91,166 milreis to be expended through the War and Marine ministries.

Justice and Crime.

The Kint'dom is divided for judicial jmrposes into coniarcas ; in every comarca there is a court of first instance. More than half of the chief towns are seats of such courts. There are three courts of appeal (Tribunaes de Relagao), at Lisbon, Oporto and Ponta Pelgada (Azores), and a Supreme Court in Lisbon.