about 12 per cent, of the pupils at the middle schools having discontinued attendance before the end of the year. Of the elementary schools only 63 were girls' schools, but in the villages the girls are taught with the boys. Of the female teachers, 362 were engaged in boys' schools. On the average there is in Servia one elementary school for every 2,500 inhabitants, and one en- rolled pupil for every 31 inhabitants, there being one boy enrolled for every 19 of the male population, and one girl for every 100 of the female population.
Other Government schools are : the Military Academy, the Commercial School, the School of Wine Culture, the Agricultural School, and the Cadastral School. There are also several private schools, elementary and other, and an orphanage supported by voluntary contributions.
The cost of the elementary schools is defrayed partly by the State and partly by the municipalities, the State paying the teachers' salaries and the municipalities providing for all other expenditure. The cost of the other public schools is borne entirely by the State. For the year 1894 the expendi- ture was as follows : —
Elementary schools, expenditure by the State .... 1,8(38,916
,, ,, ,, from Coinrauual Kates . . 890,428
Middle Schools, Expenditure by the State University ,, ,,
In 1874 only 4 per cent, of the population could read and write ; in 1884,
10 per cent. ; in 1890, 14 per cent. In 1895, 321,222 could read and write,
and 1,991,262 were illiterate — that is 14 per cent, could read and write, but
this assigns young children to the illiterates.
There is in Belgrade a national library and museum, and a national theatre
subventioned by the State.
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism.
The judges are appointed by the king. According to the Constitution they cannot be removed against their will, but in consequence of the suspension of the Constitution on May 9, 1894, their irremovability has ceased. There are 23 courts of first instance in Servia, a court of a]>peal, a court of cassation, and a tribunal of commerce. In all the courts of lirst instance there were in 1890 5,230 criminal cases with 8,464 accused persons ; in 1894 there were 8,455 criminal cases with 12,595 criminals. Of these 3585 were condemned.
There is no pauperism in Servia in the sense in which it is understood in the West ; the poorest have some sort of freehold property. There are a few poor people in Belgrade, but neither their property nor their number has necessitated an institution like a workhouse. There is a free town hospital.
For five years the State revenue and expenditure were estimated as follows: —