JUSTICE AND CRIME
Affiliated to tlie University are three colleges — Trinity, Orniond, and Queen's — in connection with the Church of England, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan Churches respectively. The School of Mines at Ballarat is also affiliated to the University. From the opening of the University to the end of 1896, 4,040 .students niatiiculated, and 2,066 direct degrees were conferred. In 1896 the students who matriculated numbered 129, the direct graduates numbered 122, an<l there were 668 students attending lectures.
Public instruction is strictly secular ; it is compidsory for children between the ages of 6 and 13, and free for the subjects comprised in the ordinary course of instruction. In 1897 there were 1,877 State schools, with 4,617 teachers, a total enrolment of 238,308 scholars, and average attendance 140,593, or about 59 per cent, of the numbers on the roll. Practically all the children of school age living in the colony are being edu cated, and about 85 per cent, of them at State schools. Amongst persons aged 15 years and upwards at the census of 1891, 95^ per cent, were able to read and write, and only 23 per cent, were entirely illiterate. In 1896-97 the total cost of public (primary) instruction, exclusive of expenditure on buildings, was 581,816^.— all paid by the State. Although the education given by the State is strictly primary, 8 exhiliitions and 127 scholarships, were awarded by the leading private colleges to the ablest scholars to enable them to complete their education at the University, and at the private grammar schools, respectively. Secondary education is entirely nnder the control either of private persons or proprietary bodies, usually connected with some religious denomination. There were in 1896-97 930 private schools in Victoria, with 2,357 teachers, and attended by 42,044 scholars, The.se numbers include 220 schools, 786 teachers, and 23,562 scholars in connection with the Roman Catholic denomination, the members of which do not as a rule avail themselves of the free education afforded by the State.
The other educational establi.shments embrace 18 technical schools under the control of the Education Department, viz., 3 working men's colleges, 5 schools of arts, and 10 schools of mines. There were also an agricultural and a horticultural college, whilst a viticultural college will be opened soon. In 1896 there were 107 teachers attached to the technical schools, irrespective of agricultural colleges, and the gross enrolment of pupils was 3,049.
The public library of Melbourne has about 446,578 volumes, pamphlets, and parts. The leading towns have either a public library or a mechanics' institute. On Jan. 1, 1897, they numbered 434. The total number of volumes in the libraries, exclusive of ^lelbourne, was about 638,292.
Justice and Crime.
There is a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five puisne judges. There are cdurts of general and i)etty sessions, county coui-ts, courts of insol- vency, courts of mines, and courts of licensing. The following are the criminal statistics for tive yeai-s : —
Taken into custody . Summarily convicted Committed for trial . Sentenced