Instruction. Public education in France is entirely under the supervision of the Government. The highest schools, or ' facultes de I'Etat,' are now often designated by the name of universities. There are 15 'facultes des lettres,' one in each academy (except Chambery) at Paris, Aix, Besan^on, Bordeaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Lille, Grenoble, Lyon, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, and Toulouse. At all of these, except Aix, are also ' facultes des sciences,' besides one at Marseilles (instead of Aix, belonging to the same academy). There are also 2 ' facultes ' of Protestant theology, 13 'facultes de droit,' and 7 'facultes de medecine et pharmacie,' 19 superior or preparatory schools of pharmacy, and 8 schools of law, science, or letters. In January 1898, there were 137 students of Protestant theology; 9,371 of law; 7,426 of medicine ; 3,544 of sciences ; 3,404 of letters; and 4,661 at superior and preparatory schools of pharmacy, &c. ; total, 28,543 students. To the support of the ' facultes ' the sum of 12,496,911 francs was set down in the budget of 1899. The Roman Catholic theological 'facultes ' were suppressed in 1885. Catholic ' facultes ' or ' ecoles libres ' exist on certain condi- tions as private establishments. The ' College de France,'
- Museum d'histoire naturelle,' ' Ecole pratique des hautes
etudes,' ' Ecole des chartes,' etc., are public establishments for highest education. The ' Ecole libre des Sciences politiques ' is a private establishment.
There are many other pubhc establishments for special training. For military and naval education : &ole Superieure de Guerre, Ecole Polytech- nique, ficole Speciale Militaire de St. Cyr, ficole Superieure de la Marine, Ecole ^avale de Brest, &c ; for civil services and industry : Ecole des Mines, Ecole des Fonts et Chaussees, Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Ecole Superieure des Hautes fitudes commerciales, Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers.
For secondary instruction there were in France on November 5, 1897, 115 (with Algeria, Martinique and Reunion) State lycees with 52,630 pupils, 229 communal colleges with 32,740 pupils, and 65 lycees and colleges for girls witli 13,894 pupils ; total, 409 secondary schools with 99,264 pupils. Of the lyc6e.^ (boys' and girls') the receipts in 1896, from the State, from departments and towns, and from fees, amounted to 37, 274,008 francs. To the communal colleges the State contributed 2, 449,355 francs in 1895. There are also small seminaries belonging to the clergy.
There are, besides, numerous technical, industrial, and other special schools for the highest or secondary education, either public or private, under the supervision of several Ministers (education, war, marine, colonies, public works, commerce and industry).
Elementary schools existed before the Revolution in the towns and in many of the rural parishes of France, but little was done for the advancement of education till near the first quarter of this century. In 1833 a law was passed requiring every commune to maintain at least one primary school, every town one higher primary school, and every department one primary
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