6.^4 TtERMAN EMPIRE: — HAMBURG
The" budget is voted by the Chamber for the period of two years, but each year separate. It is in two parts ; the first, Staatshaushalts-Etat, com- prehends the particular expeuditurc of the State, the other, Kloster-uud- Studienfonds-Etat, principally the expenditure for schools, arts and sciences. For the year from April 1, 1898, to April 1, 1899, the budget of the Staatshaushalts is fixed at 14,745,000 marks. The revenue and expenditure of the Kloster-und-Studienfonds-Etat are put at 2,612,880 marks. Not included in the budget estimates is the civil list of the Duke— 1,125,000 marks. The public debt of the Duchy, exclusive of a premium-loan repay- able by 1,219,740 marks yearly till 1924, at the commencement of 1898 was 26,977,407 marks, four-fifths of which were contracted for railways. The property of the State consists chiefiy of domains and forests and of active funds amounting to about 42 million marks in 1897, besides an annuity of 2,625,000 marks till 1932, stipulated at the sale of the railways of the State.
Production and Industry.
Brunswick numbered on June 14, 1895, 58,091 agricultural enclosures each under one household, having a population of 118,336, of whom 56,390 were actively engaged on the farms. Of these farms, 38,901 were less than 1 hectare, 13,929 ranged from 1 to less than 10 hectares, 5,080 from 10 to less than 100 hectares, and 181 had an area each of 100 hectares and upwards. Their total area was 253,571 hectares.
The chief crops are wheat (29,706 hectares in 1897), rye (29,356), oats (35,764), and beetroot (23,584). The produce in 1897 was: — wheat, 76,230 tons; rye, 52,270; barley, 14,932; oats, 69,492; beetroot, 774,383 (beet sugar 107,456 tons).
In 1897 minerals, including salt, were raised to the value of 7,606,100 marks.
There were 308 miles of railway in 1897.
British Minister Plenipotentiary. — Right Hon. Sir F. C. Lascelles, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.
Consul- General. — William Ward (Hamburg).
Beitrage zur Statistik dcs Herzogthum Braunschweig, Hefte I.— XIII.
Hassel uiul Bege, Geographisch-Statistische Beschreibung, 1S02-1S03.
Knoll unci Bode, Das Herzogthmu Braunschweig, 1892.
(Freie und Hanse-Stadt Hamburg.) Constitution.
The State and Free City of Hamburg is a republic. The present Con* stitution was published on September 28, 1860, and came into force on January 1, 1861 ; a revision was published on October 13, 1879. According to the terms of this fundamental law, the government — Staatsgewalt — is entrusted, in common, to two Chambers of Representatives, the Senate and the Biirgerschaft, or House of Burgesses. The Senate, which exercises chiefly, but not entirely, the executive power, is composed of eighteen mem- bers, one half of whose number must have studied law or finance, while seven out of the remaining nine must belong to the class of merchants. The members of the Senate are elected for life by the House of Burgesses ; but a senator is at liljcrty to retire at the end of six years. A first and second