Alito, J. dissenting
these provisions as "exemptions," that characterization is inaccurate. They make no reference to §804(a) or §805(a) or any other provision of the FHA; nor do they state that they apply to conduct that would otherwise be prohibited. Instead, they simply make clear that certain conduct is not forbidden by the Act. E.g., 42 U. S. C. §3607(b)(4) ("Nothing in this subchapter prohibits . . ."). The Court should read these amendments to mean what they say.
In 1988, policymakers were not of one mind about disparate-impact housing suits. Some favored the theory and presumably would have been happy to have it enshrined in the FHA. See ante, at 13–14; 134 Cong. Rec. 23711 (1988) (statement of Sen. Kennedy). Others worried about disparate-impact liability and recognized that this Court had not decided whether disparate-impact claims were authorized under the 1968 Act. See H. R. Rep. No. 100–711, pp. 89–93 (1988). Still others disapproved of disparate-impact liability and believed that the 1968 Act did not authorize it. That was the view of President Reagan when he signed the amendments. See Remarks on Signing the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, 24 Weekly Comp. of Pres. Doc. 1140, 1141 (1988) (explaining that the amendments did "not represent any congressional or executive branch endorsement of the notion, expressed in some judicial opinions, that [FHA] violations may be established by a showing of disparate impact" because the FHA "speaks only to intentional discrimination").
- At the same hearings to which the Court refers, ante, at 13, Senator Hatch stated that if the "intent test versus the effects test" were to "becom[e] an issue," a "fair housing law" might not be enacted at all, and he noted that failed legislation in the past had gotten "bogged down" because of that "battle." Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1987: Hearings on S. 558 before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., 5 (1987). He also noted that the bill under consideration did "not really go one way or the other" on disparate impact since the sponsors were content to "rely" on the lower court opinions. Ibid. And he emphasized that