TEOCHALOPTERUM. 173 Trochalopterum variegatum. Key to Subspecies. A. Outer webs of primaries and part of tail yellow T.v. variegatum, p. 173. B. Outer webs of primaries and part of tail slaty-blue T.v. simile, p. 174.
(162) Trochalopterum variegatum variegatum.
The Easterx A^aeiegated Laughing-Thrush.
- Cinclusoma variegatum Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 56 (Himalayas, E. Nepal).
- Trochalopterum variee/atum. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 95.
Vernacular names. Ganza (Nepalese).
Description. Forehead fulvous; c-rown and nape ashy-brown; feathers of eyelid aud a spot behind the eye white; lores and a line over and below the eye to the ear-coverts black; ear-coverts white with a black patch; chin and upper throat bhack; cheeks fulvous, meeting round the black throat; sides of neck and whole upper plumage olive-brown; wing-coverts the same, the greater broadly edged with rufous; winglet and primary-coverts black; the inner webs of the inner secondaries black, the outer grey tipped with white; outer webs of other quills bright golden- yellow tinged with rufous and tip|)ed with white; a large black patch on the outer secondaries; the middle four pairs of tail- feathers black on three parts of their length, then ashy-yellow and tipped with white, the other feathers ashy -yellow on the inner webs, olive-yellow on the outer and tipped white; breast and sides of the body fulvescent ashy-brown; remainder of lower plumage bright tawny-buff.
Colours of soft parts. Bill black; legs and feet pale reddish orange-brown : iris pale yellou-green, brown, raw sienna-brown, pale yellowish brown (Bume).
Measurements. Length about 280 to 290 mm.; wing 102 to 112 mm.; tail about 130 nun.: tarsus about 38 mm.; culinen about 20 mm.
Distribution. Himalayas from Chamba to Nepal. Kidification. This Laughing-Thrush breeds from Simla to Nepal in April, May and June at elevations between 4,000 and 8,000 feet. The nest is a bulky cup made principally of grass with a few roots, dead leaves, etc., mingled with it. Sometimes there is no lining, but at other times there are a few roots and grass stems. It is placed in low bushes and small trees at any height above the ground from a few inches to 10 feet. The eggs generally number three, sometimes four and very rarelv live. They are a pale, rather dull blue in colour, freckled and spotted with different shades of reddish brown, aud are not nearly such