Page:The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma (Birds Vol 1).djvu/475

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CERTHIA.

The young are coloured like the adult but have signs of cross-bars on the lower plumage, especially on the sides of the breast and flanks, and are somewhat paler and duller.

In Certhia the bill is as long, or nearly as long, as the head, slender and curved downwards. The nostrils are long, narrow slits. The tarsus is scutellated and the toes and claws are extremely long.

The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma (Birds Vol 1) 475.png

Fig. 83.—Foot of Certhia.

The wing is rounded, the first primary being about half the length of the second, and the third a little shorter than the second. The tail and wing about equal in length and the former is composed of twelve very stiff pointed feathers and greatly graduated.

  1. Key to Species.
  2. A. Tail distinctly cross-barred
    ......................................................................
    C. himalayana, p. 429.
  3. B. Tail without bars or with only faint ones.
  4. a. Chin, throat and breast white; under tail-coverts fulvous
    ......................................................................
    C. familiaris, p. 432.
  5. b. Whole lower plumage earthy-brown
    ......................................................................
    C. discolor, p. 435.
  6. c. Chin and throat white, remainder of lower plumage deep ferruginous
    ......................................................................
    C. stoliczkæ, p. 438.
 

Certhia himalayana.

Certhia himalayana is represented in India by four well-marked races, and is found from Baluchistan and Afghanistan to Yunnan and the Shan States. It is easily distinguished from all other forms of Tree-Creeper by its boldly barred tail.

  1. Key to Subspecies.
  2. A. Upper plumage blackish brown, strongly suffused with ferruginous on the rump and upper tail-coverts.
  3. a. Darker above; abdomen and flanks pale smoky-brown tinged with fulvous
    ......................................................................
    C. h. himalayana, p. 430.
  4. b. Paler above; abdomen and flanks pale smoky-brown with no tinge of fulvous
    ......................................................................
    C. h. tæniura, p. 431.
  5. B. Upper plumage very dark, slightly tinged with rufous on rump.
    ......................................................................
    C. h. intermedia, p. 432.
  6. C. Upper plumage with no tinge of rufous.
    ......................................................................
    C. h. yunnanensis, p. 432.