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The Green Bag

modern world . Attorney-General Wickersham discussed the Supreme Court of the United States as a prototype of a court of nations. Professor Paul S. Reinsch of the Uni versity of Wisconsin declared in an address that "a state is internationally responsible for injuries which may be inflicted upon the subjects of other states within its territory," and he added that it is unworthy of the United States that "where we have always been inclined to hold other nations responsible for injuries to our citizens we have failed to make arrangements by which our national Government shall be respon sible in similar cases." Henry B. F. McFarland said that it would not be the armies and navies of the world which would make an inter national tribunal powerful, but an en lightened public opinion behind it. If a supreme court of the world were once established, the various countries would vie with each other in appointing to it their ablest and most honorable men. Joseph E. Davies of Madison, Wis., declared that world-wide public opinion would support the judgment of a wise and capable international court in the majority of cases which might be brought to it for settlement. Thomas Willing Balch of Philadelphia expressed the opinion that many im provements might be made in the exist ing body of international law and that much could be accomplished through constructive legislation by future peace congresses. Joseph H. Choate of New York was elected president and Dr. Charles W. Eliot vice-president of the Society. Dr. James Brown Scott was chosen secre tary and J. G. Schmidlapp of Cincin nati treasurer, with an executive com mittee composed of the above-named and Theodore Marburg, Minister to

Belgium; John Hays Hammond, Gov ernor Baldwin, W. W. Willoughby and Henry B. F. McFarland. Prominent Organizations Meet in fQoston Many interesting papers were pre sented at the annual sessions of the American Political Science Association, the American Economic Association, the American Sociological Society, the Ameri can Association for Labor Legislation, the American Historical Association, American Statistical Association, and the Efficiency Society, held jointly in Boston during the last week of Decem ber. A large amount of attention was devoted to the general subject of social welfare legislation and to recent social tendencies, and many distinguished scholars and publicists took part in the proceedings. An important paper was read before the American Political Science Associa tion by Professor Walter J. Shepard of the University of Missouri, on "The Theory of the Subjective Right to Vote." The speaker maintained the doctrine of popular sovereignty to be an outworn fallacy; "we must learn to recognize the electorate as an organ of govern ment." At the same meeting Professor Roscoe Pound of Harvard Law School discussed "The Political and Economic Interpretations of Jurisprudence," and Charles H. Mcllwain of Harvard Univer sity spoke on "The Tenure of English Judges." Professor Frederic J. Stimson defended the initiative and referendum, but opposed the recall of judicial deci sions as tending to obliterate the dis tinction between constitutional and stat ute law. Professor William F. Wil loughby, Professor Frank J. Goodnow, and others spoke on national budgets. An interesting conference on "The Press and Public Opinion" was participated in by Talcott Williams, Rollo Ogden,