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The Green Bag

As to instructions to juries by the district court a very important change went into effect July 4. This addition to the Code of Iowa was adopted in the belief it would go far toward ending the reversal of cases by the appellate court on technicalities. It puts a complete end to the system of lawyers working during a trial to encumber the record with errors and to leave them unnoticed until they get to the Supreme Court. It places a burden on the court and will cause some delay in getting cases fin ished and to the jury; but it also places a responsibility on an attorney to see that the case is properly presented to the jury in the instructions. Another new law removes the pro tection from a witness who is testifying in any case involving the creation of a trust or pool, combinations, etc. Such witnesses will not be permitted to shield themselves by the claim that their testi mony would criminate themselves. Social Legislation in New York Of the thirty-two laws recommended by the New York State Factory Investi gating Commission at the last session of the legislature, thirty passed, covering every phase of factory life. Laws for the protection of factory workers in case of fire provide for the prohibition of smoking in workrooms, for fire drills, fire alarm signal systems and adequate fire-escapes and stairways. Others limit the occupants in a factory building to the number that can safely escape by means of the exits provided and pre scribe in detail requirements for the future construction of factory buildings. Child labor legislation covers the prohi bition of the employment of children under fourteen in tenements or in can nery sheds, and provides better regula tions for the issuance of work certificates. Another bill gives wide scope to the

Industrial Board, in the prohibition of the employment of children at danger ous machines or in trades or occupations found to be dangerous to their health. The educational standard was also raised. In the protection of women workers laws were passed prohibiting night work for women in factories and requiring seats for women workers. The hours of labor for women were limited to sixty a week during the canning season, and the Industrial Board was authorized to per mit their employment for sixty-six hours a week during the pea crop season if, in its opinion, the health of the women workers would not be endangered thereby. The employment of women in the core-rooms of foundries was re stricted. Laws were passed dealing with safety and sanitation. Conditions in bakeries were the subject of a separate act. The law dealing with manufac turing in tenements prohibits the em ployment of children under fourteen and the manufacture, in living apart ments of tenements, of any article of food, dolls or dolls' clothing, or infants' or children's wearing apparel. The De partment of Labor is reorganized and made one of the great departments of the state. The Industrial Board has been directed to make detailed rules, after public hearing, for safety and sanitation in different industries. The board is also given the powers of a commission of inquiry. For scientific investigations a Division of Industrial Hygiene has been created, composed of trained pro fessional men, a physician, a chemist, a mechanical engineer and a civil engineer. For the health inspection of industrial establishments and the physi cal examination of children employed therein, a section of medical inspection has been created. The Department of Labor is placed upon a scientific basis and given the facilities with which to