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The Legal World down. His secretary declares that the records of the Juvenile Court show that out of 86 cases of offenders against girls, 53 were convicted and punished and of the remaining 33 the greater part had been dismissed by the district attorney.

The Philadelphia Municipal Court By a division of four to three, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania decided the Five Judges Act unconstitutional July 10. Many eminent constitutional lawyers had believed the law con stitutional, and the Law Association of Philadelphia, in supporting the pas sage of the act, had taken this view. The majority opinion was based on an interpretation of the constitutional provision as signifying that whenever three or more judges are added to the Philadelphia courts they must be formed into a separate court. Consequently it was held that the legislature could not add one judge each to the five Courts of Common Pleas without con stituting an additional tribunal. Shortly after this decision was ren dered, Governor Tener signed the Muni cipal Court bill. Both this and the Five Judges bill had been under con sideration in the legislature at the same time, one passing each house and leading to somewhat sharp controversy as to the relative merits of the two measures. The Governor had with held his signature from the Municipal Court bill awaiting the decision of the Supreme Court. The Municipal Court Act is not all that was to be desired, as it is impossible to displace the magistrates without a constitutional amendment. It is, how ever, a well-drawn statute, and it is certain that the new court will take over a considerable share of the business of the Courts of Common Pleas, though

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exercising a concurrent jurisdiction. The court reproduces the essential features of the Municipal Court of Chicago. Bar Associations Alabama. — At the meeting of the Alabama Bar Association, held at Mobile July 11-12, the new rules adopted by the Alabama Supreme Court were ap proved. One of these rules provides that no cause appealed to the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals shall be reversed and remanded for a new trial on account of the refusal of a charge or the exclusion of evidence or a ruling on the pleadings where said ruling, although erroneous, is harmless and no substantial injustice is done. The As sociation also discussed the need of purging the profession of shyster law yers. Judge Edward T. Sandford of the United States Court of Tennessee delivered the annual address.

Colorado. — The Colorado Bar As sociation held its annual meeting July 10-12, at Colorado Springs. Harry C. Haynes of Greeley, in his presidential address, found fault with the initiative and referendum law of Colorado, and Judge Jesse G. Northcutt discussed "The Recall." Thomas H. Hood spoke on "Colorado's New Practice and Pro cedure Act," and another feature of the program was an address by Professor Roscoe Pound of Harvard Law School on "Judicial Justice." A resolution was adopted directing the president to ap point a special committee to consider the advisability of establishing an ad visory legislative bill-drafting bureau, and also of dividing each session of the legislature into two parts. These officers were elected: Henry A. Dubbs, Denver, president; Frank J. Annis, Fort Collins,