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Of Civil-Government.

a lord over his ſlave. All which diſtinct powers happening ſometimes together in the ſame man, if he be conſidered under theſe different relations, it may help us to diſtinguiſh theſe powers one from another, and ſhew the difference betwixt a ruler of a common-wealth, a father of a family, and a captain of a galley.

§. 3. Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws with penalties of death, and conſequently all leſs penalties, for the regulating and preſerving of property, and of employing the force of the community, in the execution of ſuch laws, and in the defence of the common-wealth from foreign injury; and all this only for the public good.


CHAP. II.

Of the State of Nature.

§. 4.TO underſtand political power right, and derive it from its original, we muſt conſider, what ſtate all men are naturally in, and that is, a ſtate of perfect freedom to order their actions, and diſpoſe of their poſſeſſions and perſons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without aſking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man.

A ſtate alſo of equality, wherein all the power and juriſdiction is reciprocal, no one

having