Page:United States Statutes at Large Volume 104 Part 2.djvu/708

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104 STAT. 1388-300 PUBLIC LAW 101-508 —NOV. 5, 1990 (4) Wetlands play a vital role in sustaining the coastal economy and environment. Wetlands support and nourish fishery and marine resources. They also protect the Nation's shores from storm and wave damage. Coastal wetlands contribute an estimated $5,000,000,000 to the production of fish and shellfish in the United States coastal waters. Yet, 50 percent of the Nation's coastal wetlands have been destroyed, and more are likely to decline in the near future. (5) Nonpoint source pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in coastal water degradation. In urban areas, storm water and combined sewer overflow are linked to major coastal problems, and in rural areas, run-off from agricultural activities may add to coastal pollution. (6) Coastal planning and development control measures are essential to protect coastal water quality, which is subject to continued ongoing stresses. Currently, not enough is being done to manage and protect our coastal resources. (7) Global warming results from the accumulation of manmade gases, released into the atmosphere from such activities as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the production of chlorofluorocarbons, which trap solar heat in the atmosphere and raise temperatures worldwide. Global warming could result in significant global sea level rise by 2050 resulting from ocean expansion, the melting of snow and ice, and the gradual melting , of the polar ice cap. Sea level rise will result in the loss of natural resources such as beaches, dunes, estuaries, and wetlands, and will contribute to the salinization of drinking water supplies. Sea level rise will also result in damage to properties, infrastructures, and public works. There is a growing need to plan for sea level rise. (8) There is a clear link between coastal water quality and land use activities along the shore. State management programs under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) are among the best tools for protecting coastal resources and must play a larger role, particularly in improving coastal zone water quality. (9) All coastal States should have coastal zone management programs in place that conform to the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended by this Act. (b) PURPOSE. —It is the purpose of Congress in this subtitle to enhance the effectiveness of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 by increasing our understanding of the coastal environment and expanding the ability of State coastal zone management programs to address coastal environmental problems. SEC. 6203. FINDINGS AND POLICY OF COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ACT OF 1972. (a) FINDINGS. —(1) Section 302(d) of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451(d)) is amended by inserting "habitat areas of the" immediately before "coastal zone". (2) Section 302(f) of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451(f)) is amended by inserting "exclusive economic zone," immediately after "territorial sea,". (3) Section 302 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsections: