Page:United States Statutes at Large Volume 107 Part 3.djvu/761

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PROCLAMATION 6577^JULY 2, 1993 107 STAT. 2699 (iv) Government Use (1) If a Party requires, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or agricuhiural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, that Party shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. Further, each Party shall protect such data against disclosure except where necessary to protect the public or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data is protected against unfair commercial use. (2) Unless the person submitting the information agrees, the data may not be relied upon for the approval of competing products for a reasonable period of time, taking into account the efforts involved in the origination of the data, their nature, and the expenditure involved in their preparation, and such period of time shall generally be not less than five years from the date of marketing approval. (3) Where a Party relies upon a marketing approval granted by another Party, the reasonable period of exclusive use of the data submitted in connection with obtaining the approval relied upon shall commence with the date of the first marketing approval relied upon. (f) Enforcement of Intellectual Pmperty Rights (i) Each Party shall protect intellectual property rights covered by this letter by means of civil law, criminal law, or administrative law or a combination thereof in conformity with the provisions below. Each Party shall provide effective procedures, and remedies to prevent or stop, within its territory and at the border, against any act of infringement, and effective remedies to stop and prevent infringements and to effectively deter further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of obstacles to legitimate trade and provide safeguards against abuse. (ii) Procedures for enforcing intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. (iii) Decisions on the merits of a case shall, as a general rule, be in writing and reasoned. They shall be made known at least to the parties to the dispute without undue delay. (iv) Each Party shall provide an opportunity for judicial review of final administrative decisions on the merits of an action concerning the protection of an intellectual property right. Subject to jurisdictional provisions in each Party's laws concerning the importance of a case, an opportunity for judicial review of the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case concerning the protection of an intellectual property right shall also be provided. (v) Notwithstanding the other provisions of paragraph 2(f), when a Party to this Agreement is sued with respect to infringement of an intellectual property right as a result of the use of that right by or for the government, the Party may limit remedies against the government to payment of full compensation to the right-holder. 3. For purposes of this Agreement: (a) "right-holder," includes the right-holder himself, any other natural or legal person authorized by him who are exclusive licensees of the right, or other authorized persons, including federations and associations, having legal standing under domestic law to assert such rights; (b) "A manner contrary to honest commercial practice" is understood to encompass, inter alia, practices such as theft, bribery, breach of contract, inducement to breach, electronic and other forms of commercial espionage, and includes the acquisition, use or disclosure of trade secrets by third parties who knew, or had reasonable grounds to know, that such practices were involved in their acquisition of such information. (c) "Integrated circuit" means a product, in its final form or an intermediate form, in which the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and some or all of the interconnections are integrally formed in and/or on a piece of material and which is intended to perform an electronic function. 4. Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this letter shall be construed to prohibit the adoption or enforcement by a Party of meas-