109 STAT. 886 PUBLIC LAW 104^88—DEC. 29, 1995 to file under paragraph (1) of this subsection. This paragraph only applies to a foreign motor private carrier and foreign motor carrier operating in the United States to the extent that such carrier is providing transportation between places in a foreign country or between a place in one foreign country and a place in another foreign country. " (3) TRANSPORTATION INSURANCE.— The Secretary may require a registered motor carrier to file with the Secretary a t3T)e of security sufficient to pay a shipper or consignee for damage to property of the shipper or consignee placed in the possession of the motor carrier as the result of transportation provided under this part. A carrier required by law to pay a shipper or consignee for loss, damage, or default for which a connecting motor carrier is responsible is subrogated, to the extent of the amount paid, to the rights of
- the shipper or consignee under any such security.
"(b) BROKER REQUIREMENTS.—The Secretary may register a person as a broker under section 13904 only if the person files with the Secretary a bond, insurance policy, or other type of security approved by the Secretary to ensure that the transportation for which a broker arranges is provided. The registration remains in effect only as long as the broker continues to satisfy the security requirements of this subsection. "(c) FREIGHT FORWARDER REQUIREMENTS.— "(1) LIABILITY INSURANCE.— The Secretary may register a person as a freight forwarder under section 13903 of this title only if the person files with the Secretary a bond, insurance policy, or other type of security approved by the Secretary. The security must be sufficient to pay, not more than the amount of the security, for each final judgment against the fi*eight forwarder for bodily injury to, or death of, an individual, or loss of, or damage to, property (other than property referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection), resulting from the negligent operation, maintenance, or use of motor vehicles by or under the direction and control of the freight forwarder when providing transfer, collection, or delivery service under this part. " (2) FREIGHT FORWARDER INSURANCE.—The Secretary may require a registered freight forwarder to file with the Secretary a bond, insurance policy, or other type of security approved by the Secretary sufficient to pay, not more than the amount of the security, for loss of, or damage to, property for which the freight forwarder provides service. "(3) EFFECTIVE PERIOD.—The freight forwarder's registration remains in effect only as long as the freight forwarder continues to satisfy the security requirements of this subsection. "(d) TYPE OF INSURANCE.—The Secretary may determine the type and amount of security filed under this section. A motor carrier may submit proof of qualifications as a self-insurer to satisfy the security requirements of this section. The Secretary shall adopt regulations governing the standards for approval as a self-insurer. Motor carriers which have been granted authority to self-insure as of the effective date of this section shall retain that authority unless, for good cause shown and after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary finds that the authority must be revoked.