PUBLIC LAW 86-682-SEPT. 2, 1960
§ 3302. Substitute positions (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section the Postmaster General shall prescribe the conditions under which substitutes may be appointed. (b) The Postmaster General may appoint not more than one career substitute to five regular employees, or fraction thereof, in any of the following categories. (1) postal transportation clerks; (2) post office clerks; (3) city letter carriers; (4) village letter carriers; (5) mail handlers; (6) watchmen; (7) messengers; (8) employees of the Motor Vehicle Service. (c) In post offices having fewer than five regular employees, the Postmaster General may appoint one career substitute clerk, carrier, and employee in the Motor Vehicle Service. (d) The Postmaster General may not appoint additional career substitutes until the ratios prescribed by this section are established. (e) The Postmaster General may not furlough or dismiss a career substitute in the categories covered by this section to meet requirements of this section. POSTMASTERS § 3311. Method of appointment (a) The President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint postmasters at post offices of the first, second, and third classes in the competitive civil service without term. He shall make the appointments in accordance with the Civil Service Act and rules by— (1) competitive examinations; or (2) promotion from within the postal service. (b) The Postmaster General shall appoint postmasters at post offices of the fourth class without term. § 3312. Residence requirements (a) A person is not eligible for appointment as postmaster at a post office of the first, second, or third class unless he has actually resided within the delivery of that post office, or within the city or town where it is situated, for one year next preceding— (1) the date fixed for the close of receipt of applications for examination, if the appointment is made by competitive examination; or (2) the appointment, if the appointment is made without competitive examination. (b) The residence requirements of subsection (a) of this section may be waived whenever the Civil Service Commission finds that peculiar local conditions preclude or render impossible the application of the requirement. In that case the Commission may examine and certify for appointment or promotion persons who reside in such areas adjacent to, or surrounding, the delivery zone of the post office as may be fixed by the Commission. (c) Every postmaster shall reside within the delivery of the post office to which he is appointed, or within the town or city where it is situated, or in the area adjacent to or surrounding the delivery zone of the post office in which he lived at the time of appointment.