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a gold cross. When he is outside his chambers, the Pope adds to this attire the golden episcopal pectoral cross with a gold chain, and a sash of white moire silk the ends of which are fringed with gold. In sum- mer he wears a red hat made of straw covered with silk, and in winter a fur hat with a gold cord. During a solemn audience and during attendance at divine service he wears a white soutane with a train buttoned high, adds a rochet and the red mozzetta, which in winter is made of velvet and trimmed with ermine. In addition he may wear a red stole upon which the Papal arms are embroidered in gold. On old pictures of the Popes one often notices the camauro, which is a red velvet cap lined with ermine. This had long been forgotten when Pope Benedict XV had his portrait painted wearing this most beauti- ful of all Papal head coverings. In the week between Holy Satur- day and the Sunday after Easter the Pope follows the primitive Chris- tian custom and wears pure white attire. Nevertheless red rather than white is the real Papal colour, and this is employed in all articles he uses and in his surroundings. In former times the Papal court moved about a great deal, residing in the Vatican during the winter and travelling on in summer to the Quirinal or to one of the numerous Papal palaces on the seashore, in the hills, or in the little towns of the Papal States. The picturesque Castel Gandolpho on Lake Albano was a favourite summer residence. The laws of guaranty of 1870 placed this at the Pope's disposal, but it remained vacant and desolate. After Pius IX resolved to become a prisoner in the Vatican, no Pope crossed the boundaries of the Vatican proper until, after two genera- tions, Pius XI for the first time traversed St. Peter's square in solemn procession. Through the Lateran treaties Castel Gandolpho, which consists of a palace, a villa, and a large tract of land, has become the extra-territorial possession of the Holy See and is once again used as a summer residence.

The Vatican has a thousand rooms, and the residence of the Pope consists as a matter of fact of twelve large chambers in the second story of the main wing. During nearly the whole day he himself resides in the library and study. If he crosses the threshold, it means that he has placed himself at the service of the Court and its business. High prelates accompany him wherever he goes and Swiss Guards keep watch. The Pope eats his meals alone, sitting under a red baldachino