Philosophical Terminology

Philosophical Terminology
by Ferdinand Tönnies, translated by Helen Bosanquet

(I.) Mind, N.S., Vol. 8, No. 31 (July, 1899), pp. 289-332.
(II.) Mind, N.S., Vol. 8, No. 32 (Oct., 1899), pp. 467-491.
(III.) Mind, N.S., Vol. 9, No. 33 (Jan., 1900), pp. 46-61.


I. Signs.
1-11. Natural signs. 12-21. Artificial signs—language—social will. 22-28. Individual will—forms of will—signs through will. 29-39. Customs and legislation—custom in language and legislation in language. 40. Science and language. 41-47. The social will of others in language. 48-53. Compact—connexion of convention—legislation—science. 54-55. Analogy of money. 56-60. Classification of the forms of the social will—methods of communication and explanation. 61. Science as form of the social will.
II. Causes of the state.
62-68. 1, general causes—three arguments—referred to the forms of the social will. 69-71. 2, Historical causes. 72-78. 3, hindrances from the differences of thought—reflex of the history of philosophy—criticism of the mechanical rationalism—new concepts. 79. Conflict of terminologies. 80-81. Application to the doctrine of the will. 82-84. Additional causes—hindrances. 85. Philosophy in higher education and in public life.
III. Prospects of remedies.
86-91. International character of science—tendencies towards it. 92-96. Idea of an international academy.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926.

The author died in 1936, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.