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Popular Science Monthly/Volume 34/April 1889/Literary Notices

< Popular Science Monthly‎ | Volume 34‎ | April 1889

LITERARY NOTICES.

A Text-Book of General Astronomy for Colleges and Scientific Schools. By Charles A. Young, Ph.D., LL.D. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1888. Pp. 650. Price, 12.40.

Prof. C. A. Young's "Text-Book of General Astronomy for Colleges and Scientific Schools" is a work worthy of the reputation of its author, and creditable to the progress of American science. Not only his long experience as a teacher is manifested in the book, but also the character of his teaching, which is clearly that of a man in close sympathy with his students, who perceives accurately the attitude of their minds toward the subject, and knows just when and where to lend assistance. It is no mere compilation, but, to an uncommon extent, an original work. In some text-books of astronomy many things that the really earnest student wants to know seem to have been carefully excluded; he gets results, but not the methods of attaining them, and he can not help feeling that the author has kept him out of the secret, as if it were a performance in prestidigitation. Prof. Young's book is admirably free from this fault. He not only explains principles and methods with unusual distinctness, but he is careful to show the student where to go for further or fuller information. And when he sends the beginner to higher works he starts him off with a clear conception of what he is to go for, which in itself is half the battle. Moreover, he takes pains to point out the limitations of the science—a thing of greater importance than may at first sight appear. For instance, what he says of the nature of the attraction of gravitation is something that the ordinary student rarely gets, but that is of the first importance for a proper comprehension of the subject: "We must not imagine the word 'attract' to mean too much. It merely states the fact that there is a tendency for the bodies to move toward each other, without including or implying any explanation of the fact. So far no explanation has appeared which is less difficult to comprehend than the fact itself. Whether bodies are drawn together by some outside action, or pushed together, or whether they themselves can act across space with mathematical intelligence—in what way it is that 'attraction' comes about is still unknown—apparently as inscrutable as the very nature and constitution of an atom of matter itself; it is simply a fundamental fact" (p. 109).

The whole tone of the book is stimulating and suggestive. It is interesting to the general reader as well as to the student. The chapter on "The Earth as an Astronomical Body," for instance, is a beautiful example of comprehensive treatment combined with clear and succinct statement, including, with an explanation of just those principles that the student needs to have made plain, a summary of the latest knowledge which interests everybody. To particularize a little, we have not seen in any work of the kind so perspicuous and satisfactory an account of the Foucault experiments with the pendulum and the gyroscope as that given by Prof. Young.

Among the little things, which are too often entirely overlooked by writers of text-books, but whose suggestiveness and value in awakening the interest of the student, and clarifying his ideas, have been recognized in this book, we note the demonstration of the eastward deviation of falling bodies (p. 94); the explanation of how the height of the mountains of the moon is measured (p. 170); the ingenious proof of the moon's rotation (p. 154); and the stimulating little example on page 123, showing how the eccentricity of the earth's orbit may be found from the greatest and least apparent diameters of the sun.

As was to be expected from the author's wide reputation and recognized authority as an observer of solar phenomena, the chapters on the sun are among the most interesting, instructive, and generally valuable portions of the book. It is worth while to quote two or three passages from these chapters in which he sums up the latest results of investigation and theory. After quoting Secchi's later eruption theory of sun-spots, and pointing out an obvious objection to it, he remarks: "Perhaps the true explanation may be that when an eruption occurs at any spot the photosphere somewhere in the neighborhood settles down in consequence of the diminution of the pressure beneath, thus forming a 'sink,' so to speak, which is of course covered by a greater depth of cooler vapors above, and so looks dark"(p. 190).

In regard to the disputed question of the influence of solar disturbances, as indicated by sun-spots, upon the meteorology of the earth, concerning which some extravagant notions have recently been set forth. Prof. Young says, "It is now quite certain that whatever influence the sun-spots exert upon terrestrial meteorology is very slight, if it exists at all." This statement, coming from one who ranks so high as an authority on solar physics, must be rather discouraging to those who have been trying to fix the responsibility for every great tornado, or other unusually destructive storm of late years, upon some unfortunate sun-spot.

Our author speaks with characteristic modesty, and yet very interestingly, of the phenomenon of "the reversing layer," first observed by him during the solar eclipse of 18*70, and which seems to indicate the existence of a gaseous stratum or shell surrounding the photosphere, and not above five hundred miles in thickness, to which the formation of the dark lines in the solar spectrum is mainly due. While by no means abandoning his own opinion of the probable nature of this phenomenon, he frankly states the opposing view of Mr. Lockyer, and points out how observation may be directed to settle the question.

A most inspiring and encouraging statement for those who may be troubled by doubts as to whether any important discoveries remain to be achieved by future students of the sun is that "among the many thousand lines of the solar spectrum only a few hundred are so far identified." There are twelve elements familiar to us on the earth, which are known to exist in the sun, and nine others of whose existence there the evidence is not quite conclusive. Prof. Young does not pronounce quite so positively as some foreign savants have done against the validity of Dr. Henry Draper's conclusion that his photographs had demonstrated the presence of oxygen in the sun, but he remarks that the latest work appears to turn the balance of evidence the other way. He still accepts Rosetti's determination of the effective temperature of the sun, 18,000° Fahr., as being the most probable that has yet been obtained.

The extraordinary mental picture that we must form of the solar globe, as a body in the gaseous condition and yet possessing in its nuclear mass a consistency like that of tar, has become familiar to readers of the literature of science since the publication of Prof. Young's admirable book on "The Sun," In the present work he presents in briefer form the same general conclusions concerning the constitution of the sun. There are few who will be disposed to accept by preference the views of those who hold that the great mass of the sun is probably liquid instead of gaseous. The brief synopses given of our knowledge of the nature of the visible phenomena of the sun are exceedingly clear and succinct. To begin with the photosphere, which, as the reader knows, is the visible surface of the sun, from which the splendor of its light arises: "The photosphere is probably a shell of incandescent clouds, formed by the condensation of the vapors which are exposed to the cold of space.

"The photospheric clouds float in an atmosphere containing, still uncondensed, a considerable quantity of the same vapors out of which they themselves have been formed, just as in our own atmosphere the air around a cloud is still saturated with water vapor. . . .

"The chromosphere and prominences are composed of the permanent gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. . . . The appearances are for the most part as if the chromosphere was formed of jets of heated hydrogen ascending through the interspaces between the photospheric clouds, like flames playing over a coal-fire.

"The corona also rests on the photosphere, . . . but extends to a far greater elevation than even the prominences ever reach, and seems to be not wholly gaseous, but to contain, besides the hydrogen and the mysterious 'coronium,' dust and fog of some sort, perhaps meteoric."

While the part of the book devoted to the sun is so excellent, it must not be supposed that the other divisions of the subject have not received adequate attention. In fact, one of the strong points of the work is that it is well balanced, and the student gets as complete a view of the science as is possible within the limited space of a school text book. The author, in setting forth with uncommon clearness the elementary mathematics of his subject, has not ignored what may be called its philosophical aspects. He has, for example, given an account of the nebular hypothesis which, notwithstanding its brevity, can not fail to be of much use in dissipating the fog that hangs over this whole subject in the minds of those who have little knowledge of astronomy beyond what has been vouchsafed to them in the ordinary college curriculum. We should have been pleased to see from Prof. Young's pen an elementary account of George Darwin 's remarkable theory of "tidal evolution," in place of the references that are given to other popular explanations of that subject.

Recent discoveries have carried us so far into the depths of space that there is nothing within the circuit of astronomical knowledge and investigation which appeals more strongly to inquiring minds than the relations of the solar system to the universe without. Such achievements in observation as those of the Lick telescope, and the recent surprising advances in astronomical photography, promise us much light upon the old problem of the structure of the heavens. Prof. Young's remarks in the present work on the distribution and motions of the stars, though brief, are fruitful in suggestion. We quote the following passage as a particularly interesting generalization: "In the solar system the central power is supreme, and perturbations or deviations from the path which the central power prescribes are small and transient. In the stellar system, on the other hand, the central force, if it exists at all (as an attraction toward the center of gravity of the whole mass of stars), is trifling. Perturbation prevails over regularity, and 'individualism' is the method of the greater system of the stars, as solar despotism is that of the smaller system of the planets."

This remark, which is fully justified by all we now know of stellar motion, presents a very different picture of the universe from that which has sometimes been drawn for the edification of admiring congregations, of planets circling around suns, and suns around other suns, and these systems around grander systems still, and finally the whole universe revolving with a stupendous orbital sweep around the great center of all, the throne of the Creator himself! It appears that things don't revolve that way.

There are many good features in the book that we should like to point out if space permitted. It may be remarked, by the way, that a fine example of the author's desire to convey practically useful information is the italicized sentence on page 35: "Never turn the hands of a chronometer backward."

It goes without saying that the more mathematical parts of Prof. Young's work are highly excellent, succinct, and clear. Such subjects as central forces, the tides, parallax, the equation of time, and perturbations are treated in such a way as to give the student a sure insight into the nature of the problems involved.

The illustrations accompanying the text are good, many being original, and some excellent ones borrowed from the author's book on "The Sun" (published by Appletons), and from other sources. Some useful tables of elements and constants, based upon the most recent information, close a book which, it is not too much to say, will be scarcely less welcome to the general reader than to the students for whose instruction it is intended.

Force and Energy: A Theory of Dynamics. By Grant Allen. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 161. Price, $2.25.

Mr. Allen's theory does not aim to revolutionize the generally accepted ideas concerning force, but is rather an attempt to classify the known forms of force, and systematize their relations. Under the general term power he includes forces and energies, distinguishing them by their effects. Thus, he defines a force as a power which tends to bring together portions of matter (and possibly of ether), while an energy has the opposite effect. He divides forces into four species: gravitation, which aggregates masses of matter; cohesion, which aggregates molecules; chemical affinity, which aggregates atoms; and "electrical affinity," which aggregates "electrical units." An instance of the operation of this last force is the discharge of a Leyden jar, by which positive and negative electricities are brought together. "In our present ignorance of the subject," he says, "electrical affinity must be placed in the same category as other forces; though further researches will doubtless enable us to give a better account of its real nature." Of the unit on which this force acts, the "electrical unit," he says that its nature "is very inadequately known to us," but that it "must be considered for our present purpose as in some way the analogue of the others, though we have no sufficient warrant for giving it any material properties." For further particulars he refers to a chapter on "Electrical Phenomena," but diligent search fails to discover such a chapter in the book. The author divides energies on the same principle as forces. "But owing," he says, "to the existence of two modes of energy, the potential and the kinetic, it will not be possible to assign a single definite name to each species." An instance of the action of a "molar energy" is afforded when we lift a weight from the ground. Heat, which separates molecules, is a "molecular energy." As an instance of a "chemical energy" employed in separation, he gives the power which effects the electrolysis of water. Hence, if we understand Mr. Allen rightly, the action of a current of electricity in electrolysis is the action of two powers of opposite kinds. For his aggregative power, or force,"electrical affinity" must be acting between the poles of the battery immersed in the water, while his separative chemical power, energy, is tearing apart the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. He mentions light and intense heat as other examples of chemical energy. His instance of (separative) "electrical energy" is the friction which produces a disunion of the positive and negative electrical units in the electrical machine. But he adds that "as in the case of electrical forces, our treatment of this department must be considered purely temporary and symbolical." There are two modes of energy, the potential and the kinetic, and each of the four species of energy may exist in either mode. Motion has three kinds: separative, aggregative, and continuous or neutral. Each species of kinetic energy has a form of each kind. The principle commonly called the conservation of energy Mr. Allen names "the indestructibility of power," applying the former term in accordance with his use of the word energy, while he uses "the persistence of force" to denote the indestructibility of "aggregative power." In stating these principles the author gives us another distinction between force and energy, the former being inherent in the particles of matter, never passing from one unit to another, while energy may be transferred from one particle or set of particles to another. Not only do energies oppose forces, but one force may "interfere" with another: thus, when a weight is suspended by a cord, the cohesion of the cord counteracts the force of gravitation. So also energies may be "suppressed" by forces or by other energies. "Liberating energies" are those which release bodies from the control of one force and bring them under that of another.

With two short chapters on the nature of energy and the nature of motion the author closes the "abstract or analytic" part of his book. In the "concrete or synthetic" part, which follows, he describes the operations of force and energy in the evolution of the sidereal system, the solar system, the earth, and organic life, closing with a general view of the energies which the earth possesses. In an "apology" prefixed to the volume the author states that he has kept his theory in manuscript for a number of years, and explains why it is now published. "It pretends to be," he says, "no more than a suggestion, an aperçu, an attempt at a theory: I ask for it nothing better than honest consideration."

Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Edited by L. A. Selby-Bigge, M. A., Fellow and Lecturer of University College. Macmillan & Co., Clarendon Press. 1 vol., pp. 709. Price, $2.25.

This celebrated treatise is now reproduced in admirable style, containing, in addition to the text, the original title-pages of 1739 and 1740; the original advertisements, and a critical index by the editor; the latter intended, in the language of the preface, to "point, not loudly but unmistakably, to any contradictions or inconsequences and. . . to any omissions of importance." This valuable index occupies thirty pages of fine print. Altogether, the present edition is a credit to all who have been concerned in its preparation; and no inconsiderable service is done to philosophy by thus calling attention again to the great importance of Hume in the development of philosophical thought.

The "Treatise of Human Nature" was finished by Hume when he was scarcely twenty-five years old; and its final composition occurred in the village of La Flèche, in France, where his philosophical predecessor, Descartes, was educated. The result of its publication, in England, was, to use the author's own language, that "it fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction as even to excite a murmur the zealots" It was not till his "Essays, Moral and Political," were published (1741-1748), and achieved notable success, that any measure of attention was bestowed upon the "Treatise"; and indeed the significance of the latter in the history of philosophy was not made manifest till the world became acquainted with Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason," which was first published at Riga in 1781.

This relation between Hume and Kant can be studied to advantage in the Introductions to Hume's works by the late Prof. T. H. Green, of Oxford, who was the leader of the Hegelian coterie of that institution. These Introductions are now accessible in a separate volume (Longmans, Green & Co., 1885). If Green's statements were limited to the English experiential school, before the doctrine of evolution appeared as a factor in philosophical thought, they would not stand in so much need of correction. As they are, however, they do need correction; but, nevertheless, they exhibit tolerably well the true position of Hume as the precursor of Kant. The former marked the close of an epoch, that of the course of thinking of which Locke was the progenitor. To Kant's mind Hume demonstrated the necessity of a new point of departure and a new method. This invests the "Treatise of Human Nature," his most important work, with a peculiar interest. To use Green's language, but with a less wide application of the terms "old" and "new"; the "Treatise" and Kant's "Critique" "taken together, form the real bridge between the old world of philosophy and the new. They are the essential 'propædeutik,' without which no one is a qualified student of modern philosophy."

The reader who desires to learn something more about Hume will do well to peruse the little volume entitled "Hume," of the Blackwood series of "Philosophical Classics for English Readers," written by William Knight, LL. D., Professor in St. Andrews University. This book gives both a good biography of Hume and an outline of his philosophy, a great deal in small compass; though, as in the case of Green's works, the reader of Knight's volume must be on his guard against a strong bias adverse to Hume's philosophy, and indeed to that of the English experiential school generally.

Down the Great River: Embracing an Account of the Discovery of the True Source of the Mississippi, etc. By Captain Willard Glazier. Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers. Pp. 443 liii. Price, $2.

In this book Captain Glazier relates the story in full of his journey, in 1881, by the aid of an Indian guide, "across country," from Brainard, Minnesota, to "Glazier Lake," south of Itasca Lake, and his determination of it as the real source of the Mississippi River. The journey was made first to Leech Lake, which is on one of the main affluents of the upper Mississippi, and is the seat of an Indian agency, and thence up a chain of lakes and portages, through a territory of which very little if anything was definitely known, to Itasca Lake; around Itasca Lake to the largest stream flowing into it; up that stream to "Glazier Lake," and around that lake till the author was satisfied that nothing important was likely to be found above it. Thence Captain Glazier descended in canoes, through all the windings and the lakes of the main stream of the Mississippi, and down the river to its mouth; the whole of this journey being performed in one hundred and seventeen days. He claims that his is the only party that has thus explored the whole length of the river. As determined by the author, "Glazier Lake" is in about latitude 47°; is 1,585 feet above the level of the sea, and is 3,184 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The river reaches its highest northing at Lake Bemidji, in the neighborhood of latitude 47° 30'. Captain Glazier's claims to be the discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi have been disputed by some persons, who have affirmed that the lake which has been named after him was not unknown to Schoolcraft, and that it has been visited by hunters. The author replies to these objectors by affirming that, no matter how many persons may have known of the existence of that body of water, he was the first to explore it, to gauge its dimensions, and to determine that it is the ultimate source of the Mississippi; and he cites a large number of declarations of geographers and of men versed in the history, geography, and traditions of Minnesota which support his claims in this shape. He represents "Glazier Lake," though its superficial area is less, as being deeper and containing more water than Itasca Lake. The story of the explorer's journey is very pleasantly narrated, with descriptions of the notable points along the river and the more striking scenes, and is embodied in a neat volume which is adorned with appropriate illustrations.

Lectures on Pedagogy: Theoretical and Practical. By Gabriel Compayré. Translated, with an Introduction, Notes, and an Appendix, by W. H. Payne, A. M. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 491.

Although deeming that the best system of teaching "which we make for ourselves through study, experience, and personal reflection," M. Compayré says also that "in order to aid the reflection and guide the experience of each novice in instruction, the book is very far from being useless though it do nothing more than stimulate personal reflection. It is just in this spirit, less for imposing doctrines than for suggesting reflections, that this modest volume has been written." He divides the treatise into two distinct parts, theoretical pedagogy and practical pedagogy. In the first part, after a general consideration of the function and limits of education, the author states the general principles of both physical education and intellectual education, and then takes up the special culture of the various faculties, beginning with the education of the senses. Besides treating of the essential faculties which are constantly being employed in mental operations, he makes a plea for the culture of the imagination, justifying this tribute to its importance by a quotation from Mr. Blackie, who says: "It is the enemy of science only when it acts without reason—that is, arbitrarily and whimsically; with reason it is often the best and the most indispensable of allies." The education of the feelings is also urged in a chapter which leads up to the subject of moral education. Æsthetic and religious training are likewise included in the scope of education. Under practical pedagogy, methods of teaching and rules of school management are treated. In regard to the importance of method he says: "There is nothing to be expected from a discipline which is hesitating and groping; from instruction which remains incoherent and disorderly, which fluctuates at the mercy of circumstances and occasions, and which, being wholly unpremeditated, allows itself to be taken at unawares." The principal methods of teaching to read are first described, some advice on the teaching of writing is given, and the simultaneous teaching of reading and writing is touched upon. The author has a chapter on object-lessons, pointing out their true character, and telling how they have been distorted by some teachers. In dealing with the study of the mother tongue he points out some general principles, and tells the special use of grammar, dictation exercises, analysis, composition, elocution, and literary exercises in teaching knowledge of language. The teaching of history and of geography are treated in like manner. His chapter on the sciences is devoted mainly to arithmetic and geometry, while the physical and natural sciences are disposed of in three pages. He seems inclined to rate the acquirement of facts as a more important purpose of science-teaching than the formation of the habit of observation; therein, as in what few other suggestions he gives on this subject, following the French official programme of instruction. Methods of moral and civic instruction, and the teaching of drawing and music, are treated in some detail. Manual labor for boys, agriculture, and military drill, manual labor for girls, sewing, and domestic economy, are touched upon. The two closing chapters deal with rewards and punishments, and discipline in general. The text is divided into paragraphs, each with a title. Throughout the volume the author makes evident his belief that a living, active personality is needed in addition to rules and formulas, in order to make any system of education effective.

Civilization and Progress. By John Beattie Crozier. London and New York: Longmans & Co. 1888. Pp. 477. Price, $1.50.

In this work there is much to commend. The defect seems to be a failure to properly condense and clarify the thought. Again, there is, perhaps, too much reference to particular men as exponents of intellectual movements. Not that names should be neglected, but more prominence is given to the person than to the thought represented; leading to the false impression that men make an epoch instead of the truth that the epoch makes men, who are only representatives of the intellectual feeling of their times. But, apart from these matters of minor criticism, the book is a most excellent one, for the reason that the author aims to show, and succeeds in showing, the controlling factor in any social progress "to be the material and social conditions, and not, as so many believe, moral exhortation and appeal." This rests on the law that "in this world things make their own relations—that is to say, their own morality—in spite of politicians or priests. Now, should this turn out to be a true law, it will not only settle speculatively the basis on which civilization rests, but will also furnish a practical guide for action. Its importance, therefore, can not be overestimated. For if the moral relationships of the great masses of men—their ideals, opinions, and habits of thought—grow directly out of their conditions of life, it is evident that, instead of sitting invoking (sic) a lofty morality which will prove as obstinate as the fire invoked by the priests of Baal, it behooves us rather to set to work resolutely to bring about that amelioration in the material and social conditions without which the higher morality can not arise." This is a truly scientific position to assume, and the fact that the author takes it entitles his work to the consideration of disciples of science. As to the value of the idea set forth, there is much force in the author's contention that we ought to regard with serious attention the question whether we can have any such thing as equality or security in rights unless there be substantially a social equality of power. If power be unbalanced, the stronger will oppress the weaker, and endeavor to perpetuate its domination at the expense of the latter. This process will go on till the pressure of the more powerful becomes unbearable, and provokes violent and destructive eruptions leading to all sorts of convulsions. Hence we must not expect any stable social equilibrium unless there be an equality of power—that is to say, of material and social conditions.

Accessory to this central thought of Mr. Crozier's work are many interesting criticisms, historical, political, religious, and ethical. The book is worthy of careful study, and is a genuine contribution to sociologic

 

In his Complete Graded Course in English Grammar and Composition (D. Appleton & Co.), Mr. Benjamm C. Conklin has endeavored to compass with a single volume the entire range of the usual two-hook course. This he does by making it sufficiently elementary in the beginning to be put into the hands of pupils in the lowest grammar grades, and sufficiently advanced to cover all that is required of the highest grammar classes. The theory of the book is the gradual development of the sentence; the method inductive. The teachings of the text are exemplified by graded sentences, which in themselves afford a concrete presentation of the whole subject; and these are accompanied by questions so framed as to require the pupil, after a study of the text, to formulate his own answers. Analysis and synthesis are so carried along together as to develop, with the knowledge of the structure of the sentence, the power to use language. Instead of giving examples of false syntax for correction, a better way is sought of accomplishing the same object by presenting exercises for filling out sentences by supplying the correct forms of words in blank spaces. But examples of false syntax are given in an appendix, for teachers who prefer them.

In the High-School German Grammar of W. H. Van der Smissen and W. H. Fraser (D. Appleton & Co.), while the lessons and exercises have been made progressive as far as possible, each separate subject is fully treated before being dismissed. Care has been taken that no grammatical point shall occur in any sentence on which the pupil has not been previously instructed, and that the principles of past lessons as well as of the current lesson shall appear in every exercise. Supplementary lessons, designed mainly for reference, are devoted to special cases of grammatical usage. Those points in which German differs from Euglish usage, particularly with regard to the prepositions and their puzzling idioms, the use of participles and the construction of participial clauses, and the order of words and construction of sentences, are explained. The vocabulary gives such meanings of words as occur in the exercises; and the index is full.

American educators now have offered to them the Systems of Education of Prof. John Gill (Heath, $1.10). The work is a history and criticism of the educational principles, methods, organization, and discipline which have been in use in England, and consists of lectures which it became the author's duty to prepare, as Professor of Education in the Normal College, Cheltenham. The first man whose ideas produced an important effect on English education was Roger Ascham, and his "Scholemaster," though dealing primarily with classical teaching, yet contains principles which are applicable to all school subjects. Comenius, Milton, Locke, and Vicesimus Knox are the other educationists whose teachings have been influential in shaping the grammar schools of England. The Edgeworths and Pestalozzi are credited with most strongly modifying the development of the common school. Oberlin, Wilderspin, the Mayos, and Froebel are the most prominent names in the history of infants ' schools. In the conduct of the elementary school, designed for pupils whose education will not proceed far. Dr. Andrew Bell, the founder of the monitorial system, has the earliest place. Joseph Lancaster, a contemporary of Bell, employed substantially the same methods. Without displacing the monitorial organization, there grew up after a time what was called the intellectual system, which made the culture of the intelligence its special aim. A further advance in the same direction was made by David Stow, who devised the training system, which is here presented with especial fullness. The book closes with a chapter on amateurs and helpers, who, though not professional teachers, have had more or less influence in developing systems of education.

In the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1886-'87 (Government Printing-Office), the commissioner, Hon. N. H. R. Dawson, states that the bureau has undertaken to investigate the history of American education, beginning with the sections of the country whose educational history is comparatively unknown. Monographs on William and Mary College and the University of Virginia, with sketches of other Virginian colleges, have been prepared. The commissioner devotes considerable space to telling the condition and needs of education in Alaska, where he has personally made a tour of inspection. Since his appointment, he has simplified the organization of the bureau, and has succeeded in hastening the publication of the annual reports. The volume contains the usual information about the schools of the country, and an index to the publications of the bureau, from 1868 to 1887, with a list of the same.

The second of the "Contributions to American Educational History," now being published by the Bureau of Education, is on Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia, by Prof. Herbert B. Adams, and contains also authorized sketches of Hampden Sidney, Randolph, Macon, Emory, Henry, Roanoke, and Richmond Colleges, Washington and Lee University, and Virginia Military Institute. Jefferson's efforts in the cause of education, and the history of the establishment of the University of Virginia, are given with much fullness. An interesting chapter in the account tells how the example of this university over sixty years ago aided the birth of what is now called "the Harvard idea." The record is made more valuable by numerous illustrations, part of them, including a portrait of Jefferson, being borrowed from a recent article on Jefferson in "The Century." Views of the buildings of the other colleges described are also given. Several special articles on the university are contributed by various writers, viz.: "Influence of the University upon Southern Life and Thought," and "The Writings of the Faculty of the University, 1825-'27," by William P. Trent, A. M.; "Present Organization and Condition of the University," by Prof. John B. Minor; "The Elective System of the University," by Prof. J. M. Garnett; and a "Bibliography of the History of the University," by the editor.

The book on Manual Training in Elementary Schools for Boys, by A. Sluys (Industrial Education Association, New York, Part I, 20 cents), will form Nos. 1 and 8 in the series of monographs published by this association. The author is principal of the Normal School of Brussels, and has studied the subject of manual training in Sweden, whither he was sent for this purpose by the Belgian Minister of Education. His book has been translated for this series, with the belief that it is the best and most accurate as well as the most condensed treatment of the subject that has yet appeared in any language. In the first part of this work, now before us, the author states the two standpoints from which manual training is advocated, the economic and the pedagogic, giving a somewhat detailed view of the economic side of the subject. An account of the schools of Nääs, and a history of instruction in manual training in the primary schools of Sweden, are the other topics treated in this portion of the book. There are some traces of the translation process in the English of this pamphlet. We note, for instance, the expression "whets the saw," and on the same page the visitors are made to say, "We have often assisted the pupils in their manual work at the Nääs school," where the original phrase undoubtedly meant "to be present at"; and in the Gallicism "assisted at," at the foot of the next page, the translator has reproduced the form of the same phrase instead of its meaning.

In his oration on The American University, delivered at Columbia College, June 2, 1887, Prof. Charles Sprague Smith expresses the view that the future university of this country must be formed in harmony with the development of the American people; that the last two years of the usual college course may be taken a« the first two of the university, relegating the present freshman and sophomore work to a preparatory course; that election of courses rather than of separate studies should be allowed in the university, and but little or no election in the academies; and that the scope of the university should be twofold—to instruct the few and to enlighten the many.

Prof. Robert T. Hill delivered before the University of Texas, October 26, 1888, an inaugural dissertation on Some Recent Aspects of Scientific Education, in which he points out that the introduction of the study of the natural sciences into the modern system of education has had a vast and beneficent influence on the popular mode of thought, and of searching for truth, on the public health, on the art of agriculture and the mechanical arts, on our knowledge of man, on the methods of education itself, and on the progress of sociology. He touches also upon the benefits of the extension of university study into the homes of the people.

 

According to Secretary S. P. Langley's Report, the Smithsonian Institution is overtaking the capacity of the fund to sustain it, and is beginning to need larger resources. New accommodations are needed for the National Museum; the library, now including 250,000 volumes, and extremely valuable, is so crowded in the Congressional Library rooms as to be of little use; the erection of an astro-physical observatory is suggested. The first part of Prof. Cope's work on the reptiles and batrachians of North America is in the hands of the printer. Explorations are mentioned in Japan, the islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (for remains of the great auk). Central America, and Alaska. A steady falling off is remarked in the rate of addition to the quarto series of Smithsonian "Contributions," while the series of "Miscellaneous Collections" grows much more rapidly. The recent accessions to the museum (12,000 groups or lots of specimens since the present building was opened) include several extensive collections. The increasing popularity of this department is proved by the increase of 32,463 in one year in the number of visitors (249,025 in 188'7'88). A higher standard than the average is claimed for the clerical force of the Institution, and its excellence is attributed to the absence of politics.

The sixth and seventh parts of Mr. Richard A. Proctor's Old and New Astronomy (Longmans, Green & Co., London and New York) relate to the physical functions and constitution of the sun and to the planet Mercury. The author's method of treatment is clear and interesting; he is well at home in the subject, and has endeavored to serve it in this book as one should serve the chosen and ultimate work of his life. The publishers have done their part in making the work attractive, presenting a page of pleasant aspect, abundantly illustrated with figures intended to make the text more easily intelligible, and engraved in a style that leaves nothing to be desired.

Several monographs have been sent us by Dr. Alexis A. Julien—reprints of papers read during several years past before scientific societies. The one among them of the most direct value is that on the Decay of the Building-Stones of New York City, in which the various stones employed in architecture and their several qualities—particularly those affecting their durability—are described. In the Genesis of the Crystalline Iron Ores, the various theories on the subject and the author 's conclusions are given.—The Sealed Flasks of Crystal calls attention to the liquid inclosures in crystals, which are more frequent than they are known to be, explains their occurrence, and tells how to find them.—A double paper On the Variation of Decomposition in the Iron Pyrites; its Cause, and its Relation to Density, besides the features of treatment suggested, tells many things concerning a common mineral, in a style acceptable to the general reader.—Other papers in the list are On the Geology of Great Barrington, Mass.; Notes on the Glaciation of the Shawangunk Mountain, N. Y.; The Dunite Beds of North Carolina; and the Volcanic Tuffs of Challis, Idaho, and other Western Localities.

According to the Report of the State Mineralogist, W. J. Irelan, Jr., the State Mining Bureau of California is satisfying a want which the State has been in much need of since the beginning of quartz or ledge mining. It is gathering the records of the earliest mining ventures, collecting statistics of present developments, studying the methods of recovery of the precious metals, examining the unexplored mineral sections, determining the lithological structure of the inclosing rocks, and making known to the world the mineral resources of the State. It has collected an extensive museum of specimens, and is accumulating a valuable library of books treating on the subjects for which it was created. The report for 1888 treats all of the counties of the State separately, with all matters bearing upon their mining interests and development; and its nine hundred and forty-nine pages are full of information respecting the geology, mineralogy, mines, method of working, machinery, and results of each district.

The Reports and Bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, whether examined collectively or separately, furnish information of value, to a large extent fresh. One from Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (No. 3, January, 1889) is devoted chiefly to Tuberculosis.—The Annual Report of the Connecticut Station for 1888 includes a paper on Fertilizers, their analysis and value; Bulletin No. 96 of the same station (January, 1889) is on the Valuation of Feeding-Stuffs.—Bulletin No. 2 (October, 1888) of the Storrs School Station, Mansfield, Conn., records Experiments on the Effects of Tillage-upon Soil Moisture.—Bulletin No. 4, of the New York Station, Geneva, is on the Chemical Composition of some Feeding-Stuffs (grasses, clovers, forage-crops, grains, and by-products).—Bulletins Nos. 3 and 4 of Cornell University Station (November and December, 1888) relate to certain insects and to the growing of corn for fodder and ensilage.—Bulletin No. 3 of the University of Illinois Station (November, 1888) relates to Field Experiments in Oats.Bulletins Nos. 2 and 3 of Iowa Agricultural College Station contain thirteen articles on "Corn-Tassels, Silks, and Blades"; "Characteristics of Hardy and Tender Fruit-Trees"; "Promising New Fruits, Grasses, Insects, and Insect Remedies," and other subjects.

The Report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Hon. Joseph S. Miller, for the last fiscal year, deals chiefly with tobacco, spirits, substitutes for butter, and adulterations. A large increase is shown in manufactures of tobacco and collections therefrom, while the manufacture of spirits decreased during the year by 7,552,193 gallons, the decrease being wholly in whiskies and high-wines. A large and valuable portion of the report deals with butter substitutes, and the laws and regulations of different countries respecting them and adulterations. The commissioner also publishes, as a separate document, the Regulations for the Analysis of Foods and Drugs in the District of Columbia; to which is appended a list of substances that are dangerous or that are harmless when present in foods. Bibliographies accompany both pamphlets.

 

With the new year several new periodicals have come into being and invite attention. The Cumberland Presbyterian Review is a quarterly publication, devoted to theology and the discussion of current religious, literary, and scientific topics, and questions connected with church work and moral reform. It is edited by J. M. Howard, D. D., and published at Nashville, Tenn., by the Board of Publication of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Among the articles we note those of President A. B. Miller, on the "Physical Basis of Moral Reform"; Prof. Hinds, on "Charles Darwin"; Prof. Tigert, on "Our Senses, how we use them, and what they tell us"; and T. M. Hurst, on the "Decay of Christian Citizenship," as probably most likely to interest our readers. The Collegian is a monthly, devoted to the interests of undergraduates, edited by Samuel Abbott, and published at Boston under the auspices of the Intercollegiate Press Association. It aims to be the central organ of our four hundred and fifty or more colleges, with their more than one hundred and eight thousand students; and is to be, except for the "special paper," the work of undergraduates. The paper, "A Worker in Stone," in the first number, is a truly scientific study of Indian relics. Another paper claiming attention is a symposium, or collection of letters on "The Influence of Athletics upon the Curriculum." Germania is a fortnightly journal for the study of the German language and literature, edited and published by A. W. Spanhoofd, at Manchester, N. H. It will attempt to teach the language and to acquaint its readers with the best of German literature by publishing graded reading exercises and selections from the representative authors. The Educator, W. H. Smith, editor, Buffalo, monthly, September to June, will undertake to give to persons in schools knowledge of what is going on in the world; of affairs of the State and nation, scientific adventures and discoveries, and the good in literature. Pp. 16, $1 a year. Electric Power, R. W. Pope and G. H. Stockbridge, editors (Electric Power Publishing Company, New York), is devoted to the interests of the electric railway, and of the transmission of power by electricity for industrial purposes. Monthly. Pp. 24, $3 a year. The Business Woman's Journal, Mary F. Seymour, editor and publisher. New York, is a monthly devoted to the interests of all women, especially of those engaged in active pursuits. It believes that women may succeed in every sphere of life, and will advocate the recognition of their right to have their success acknowledged; "will be the organ of no special reform, but of all," and "will look at the woman's side of every question." Pp. 24, $1 a year.

President G. Stanley Hall's American Journal of Psychology, now in its second volume, well carries out the high purpose with which it started. In the latest number, Prof. Sanford gives a study of the "Personal Equation," including the history of the observations and the results of the investigations that have been made on the subject; Dr. W. H. Burnham considers the "Memory" from the historical and experimental points of view; and Mrs. Putnam-Jacobi discusses "The Place for the Study of Language in a Curriculum of Education." In the notices in "Psychological Literature," which include many titles, works and papers on the nervous system are reviewed by Prof. Donaldson, and those in the experimental field by Prof. Jastrow. $5 a year.

The Harvard Law Review, monthly, is published by students of the Harvard Law School, with George R. Nutter as chief of the editorial board. The numbers for October and November, 1888, contain an essay by Mr. Samuel Williston on the "History of the Law of Business Corporations before 1800," which received the prize offered by the Harvard Law School Association—a prize which has the promise of becoming an annual one, at least for several years to come. A summary of the "Liquor Statutes of the United States" is given by William Church Osborn in the October number. The general list of contributors includes several publicists of national fame; 35 cents a number, $3.50 a year.

The Manufacturer and Builder, W. H. Wahl, editor (Henri Gerard, publisher. New York), now in its twenty-first year, is devoted largely to the building trades, and whatever relates to them, and well occupies its field, which it makes to cover a wide range of subjects. The number for January, 1889, shows continued improvement. Among other matters it has a review of progress during 1888. $1.50 a year.

 

 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Abbott, Samuel. Editor. "The Collegian." Monthly. February. 1889. Boston: New England Intercollegiate Press Association. Pp. 100. 30 cents. $3 a year.

Bell, Clark. The Recent Jndicial Departure in Insanity Cases. New York. Pp. 43.

Binet. Alfred. The Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company. Pp. 121. 75 cents.

Bruce, Philip A. The Plantation Negro as a Freeman. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 262. $1.25.

Buck. J. D., M. D. A Study of Man and the Way to Health. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. Pp. 325. $2.50.

Buckham. T. R., Flint, Mich. The "Right and Wrong" Test of Insanity. Pp. 4.

Burt, Stephen Smith, M. D. Exploration of the Chest in Health and Disease. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 206. $1.50.

Canfield, William B., M. D. On the Microscopical Examination of Urinary Sediment. Pp. 4. The Gonococcus. Pp. 8. Baltimore.

Carpenter, William B. Nature and Man. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 483. $2.25.

Case, Thomas. Physical Realism. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 887. $6.

Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. First Annual Report, for 1888.

Coulter, John M. . and Rose, J. N. Revision of North American Umbelliferæ. Crawfordsville, Ind. Pp. 144, with Plates.

Cram's Standard American Atlas of the World. New York: William M. Goldthwaite, Manager.

Crooker, Joseph Henry. Jesus Brought Back. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. Pp. 214.

Crothers, T. D., M. D. Should Inebriates be punished by Death for Crime? Hartford, Conn. Pp. 9.

"Current Literature" Monthly. February, 1889. New York. Pp. 186. 25 cents. $3 a year.

Davis, Eben H. The Beginner's Reading-Book. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 128.

Dawson, Sir J. William. On the Eozoic and Palæozoic Rocks of the Atlantic Coast of Canada, etc. Pp. 20. Notes on Balanus Hameri, etc. Pp. 6.

Dawson, Sir W., and G. M. On Cretaceous Plants from Port McNeill, Vancouver Island. Pp. 2.

Donnell, E. J. Outlines of a New Science. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 68. $1.

Day, David T. Mineral Resources of the United States. Report for 1887. Washington: Government Printing-office. Pp. 832.

Drummond, A. T. The Great Lake Basins of the St. Lawrence. Pp. 40.

Dyer, T. F. Thiselton. The Folk-Lore of Plants. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 328. $1 50.

Eccles, R. G., M. D. Descent and Disease. Brooklyn. Pp. 21.

Fletcher, Alfred Ewe. Sénescent's Cyclopædia of Education. Syracuse, N. Y.: C. W. Bardeen. Pp. 562. $3 75.

Geological Survey U. S., Bulletin. Nos. 40 to 47. Washington: Government Printing-Office.

Gibson, R. J. Harvey. A Text-Book of Elementary Biology. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp 362. $1.75.

Gosse, Edmund. A History of Eighteenth Century Literature. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 415. $1.75.

Gould, George M., M. D., Philadelphia. The Psychological Influence of Errors of Refraction, and their Correction. Pp 6.—Dreams, Sleep, Consciousness. Pp. 24.—The Homing Instinct. Pp. 24.

Greely, A. W. Report of the Chief Signal-Officer for 1887. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 892.

Gumey Hot-Water Heater Calendar for 1889.

Illinois. Message of Richard J. Oglesby, Governor. Pp. 28.

Illinois State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. First Annual Report. Pp. 15.

Iowa Agricultural College Experiment Station. Bulletins.

Ives, Frederic E. A New Principle in Heliochromy. Philadelphia. Pp. 13.

James, Prof. Joseph F. Distribution of Vernonia in the United States. Pp. 5.

Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Sixth Biennial Report (advance sheets). Pp. 57.—State Historical Society. Sixth Biennial Report. Pp. 128.

Kibler, Edward. The Universality of Two Temperaments. Pp. 8.

Klein, Dr. Herrmann, and McClure, Edmund. Star Atlas. New York: J. B. Young & Co. Pp. 82, with Eighteen Plates.

Kreider, George N., M. D., Springfield, Ill. How Micro-Organisms enter the Body. Pp. 8.

Lake Forest University Catalogue, 1888-'89. Pp. 132.

Lewis, T. H. Effigy Mounds in Northern Illinois. Pp. 3.

Mason, Lewis D., M. D. Etiology of Dipsomania and Heredity of "Alcoholic Inebriety." Pp. 21.—Pathological Changes in Chronic Alcoholism. Pp. 8. Fort Hamilton, L. I.

Mayo, Rev. A. D. Industrial Education in the South. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 86, with Plates.

Mills, Charles de B. The Tree of Mythology: its Growth and Fruitage. Syracuse, N. Y.: C. W. Bardeen. Pp. 288.

Navy Department, U. S. Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering for 1888. Pp. 101.—Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, February, 1889.—The Derelict American Schooner, W. L. White.

New York. Report of the State Board of Charities. Pp. 60.—Committee Report on the Insane. Pp. 251.—Report of the State Reformatory. Pp. 62.

Oswald, Felix L., M. D. Days and Nights in the Tropics. Boston: D. Lothrop "Company. Pp. 186, with Plates.

Preyer, Prof. W., and Brown, H. W. The Mind of the Child. Part II. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 317. $1.50.

Ranch, John H., M. D., Secretary Illinois State Board of Health. Report on Medical Education, Medical Colleges, and the Regulation of the Practice of Medicine in the United States and Canada. Pp. 163.

Renton, A. Wood. Testamentary Capacity in Mental Disease. Pp. 7.

Rohé, George H.. M.D. The Electrolytic Decomposition of Organic Tissues. Pp. 15.

Romanes, G. J. Mental Evolution in Man. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 452. $3.

Serviss, Garrett P. Solar and Planetary Evolution. Boston: New Ideal Publishing Company. Pp. 24. 10 cents.

Shufeldt, R. W., M.D. Contributions to the Comparative Osteology of Arctic and Subarctic Water-Birds. Part II, pp. 26, with Plates.—The Navajo Tanner. Pp. 8, with Plates.

Smith, Charles Lee. History of Education in North Carolina. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 180, with Plates.

Smith, W. H., Editor. "The Educator." Monthly. Buffalo, N.Y. Pp. 16. $1 a year. 10 numbers.

Stowe, Winthrop E. Investigations concerning Arabinose and some Related Substances. Knoxville, Tenn. Pp. 26.

Thompson, Daniel Greenleaf. Social Progress. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 161.

Thwing, Edward P., M.D. Euthanasia In Articulo Mortis. Pp. 14.

Tuckerman, Frederick, M.D. The Gustatory Organs of Vulpes Vulgaris. Amherst, Mass. Pp. 5.

"University (of Nebraska) Studies." Quarterly. Lincoln, Neb. Pp. 64. $1. $3 a year.

University, State, of Iowa. Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural History. Vol. I, No. 1. Iowa City. Pp. 96.

Wachsmuth. Charles, and Springer, Frank. Studies in Crinoids. Pp. 54.

Waghorne, Rev. Arthur 0. Wild Berries and other Edible Fruits of Labrador and Newfoundland. St. John, Newfoundland. Pp. 11.

Wells, Benjamin W., Editor. Schiller's "Jungfrau von Orleans" (Maid of Orleans). Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 224. 65 cents.

Woodhull, Victoria C. The Garden of Eden: The Allegorical Meaning revealed. London. Pp. 64.

Wyman, Hal C., M.D. The Training of Nurses. Philadelphia: Records, McMullin & Co. Pp. 15.