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Investiture Controversy
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"The great struggle between the popes and the German kings Henry IV and Henry V, during the period 1075-1122. The prohibition of investiture was in truth only the occasion of this conflict; the real issue, at least at the height of the contest, was whether the imperial or the papal power was to be supreme in Christendom." —"Conflict of Investitures," in Catholic Encyclopedia, (ed.) by Charles G. Herbermann and others, New York: The Encyclopaedia Press (1913)
Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Emperor Henry IV, as illustrated in Otto of Freising's Chronica de duabus civitatibus (12th c.)

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