This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was legally published within the United States (or the United Nations Headquarters in New York subject to Section 7 of the United States Headquarters Agreement) between 1978 and March 1, 1989 (inclusive) with a defective copyright notice, and without subsequent copyright registration with the U.S. Copyright Office within 5 years. The copyright notice in this work contains at least one of the following defects:
- Notice does not include the copyright symbol ©, the word "Copyright", or the abbreviation "Copr.";
- Notice is dated more than one year later than the actual date of first publication;
- Notice does not include a named claimant or does not name the actual copyright holder;
- Notice is illegible or concealed from view;
- The work is a printed literary, musical, or dramatic work whose copyright notice does not include the year.
A defective notice does not invalidate copyright in cases where the error is immaterial and would not mislead an infringer, such as an abbreviated name.
This work may be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.