# The American Cyclopædia (1879)/California

CALIFORNIA, one of the western states of the American Union, situated on the Pacific ocean, between lat. 32° 20' and 42° N., and lon. 114° 20' and 124° 25' W. It is bounded N. by Oregon; E. by Nevada and Arizona, following the Sierra Nevada on the line of lon. 120° W. to lat. 39°, thence S. E. to the river Colorado on the 35th parallel, and thence by the course of that river; S. by the Mexican territory of Lower California; and W. by the Pacific ocean. The outline of this state is very irregular. Its general direction lengthwise is N. W. and S. E., and a line drawn through its centre, following the curves of its eastern and western boundaries, would measure about 770 m. The greatest breadth is about 330 m., least breadth 150 m., average about 230 m. In size it is the second state in the Union, its area being 188,981 sq. m., which is exceeded only by Texas; in population it was in 1870 the 24th.

Seal of California.

It is divided into 51 counties, viz.: Alameda, Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Contra Costa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Fresno, Humboldt, Inyo, Kern, Klamath, Lake, Lassen, Los Angeles, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Mono, Monterey, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Ventura, Tuolumne, Yolo, Yuba. California contains eight cities, viz.: San Francisco, pop. in 1870, 149,473; Sacramento, 16,283; Oakland, 10,500; Stockton, 10,066; San José, 9,089; Los Angeles, 5,728; Marysville, 4,738; San Diego, 2,300. The principal towns are Benicia, Trinidad, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, Vallejo, San Rafael, Sonoma, Napa, Mendocino, Humboldt City, and Klamath, all on or near the coast; east of the Coast range, and for the most part among the mines, are Nevada, Shasta City, Downieville, Grass Valley, Nicolaus, Mokelumne Hill, Sonora, Mariposa, San Bernardino, Visalia, Columbia, Placerville, Coloma, and Auburn.—In 1831 the population, exclusive of Indians, was estimated at 23,000. The first federal census in 1850 gave a population of 92,597, but this was very imperfect, most of the returns having been burned; the state census of 1852 gave 264,435; the federal census of 1860, 379,994; that of 1870, 560,247, of whom 349,479 were males and 210,768 females, 350,416 of native and 209,831 of foreign birth, 4,272 colored, and 7,241 Indians. There were 21,784 Indians retaining tribal relations, of whom 8,284 were on reservations and agencies, and 13,500 nomadic. Of the native born, 169,904 were born in California (including 484 Chinese), 33,766 in New York, 16,050 in Missouri, 15,334 in Massachusetts, 12,735 in Ohio, 11,261 in Maine, 11,208 in Pennsylvania, 10,689 in Illinois, 6,605 in Kentucky, 5,367 in Iowa, 5,190 in Indiana, 3,500 in Vermont, 3,086 in Wisconsin, 2,977 in Connecticut, 2,720 in New Hampshire, 2,598 in New Jersey, 2,596 in Maryland, 2,396 in Arkansas; and there were persons born in every state and territory of the Union. Of those of foreign birth, 54,421 were born in Ireland, 48,826 in China, 29,701 in Germany, 17,669 in England, 10,660 in British America, 9,339 in Mexico, 8,068 in France, 4,949 in Scotland, 4,660 in Italy; and there were persons born in about 40 other countries. The density of population was 2.96 to a square mile. There were 128,752 families with an average of 4.35 persons each, and 96,880 dwellings with an average of 5.55 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 47.44 per cent. The most remarkable foreign immigration has been from China. Of the total number (63,254) of Chinese in the United States and territories, as returned by the census of 1870, 49,310 were in California. Of the 15,949 immigrants arriving at San Francisco during the year ending June 30, 1870, 14,108 were Chinese. The total number of Chinese arrived in the United States up to Jan. 1, 1871, was 109,502, nearly all of whom entered at San Francisco; 46 arrived prior to 1851, 41,397 between 1851 and 1860, and 68,059 between 1860 and 1871. They consist mostly of male adults, there being very few women among them. There were 24,877 persons 10 years of age and upward who were unable to read, and 31,716 (including 2,853 Chinese and 1,789 Indians) were unable to write; of these, 9,520 were of native and 22,196 of foreign birth. Of those of 21 years and upward unable to read and write, 12,362 were white males, 9,837 white females, 468 colored males, and 339 colored females. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 30, 1870, was 2,317, at a cost of $273,147. Of the total number (991) receiving support June 1, 1870, 354 were of native and 637 of foreign birth. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 1,107. Of the total number (1,574) in prison June 1, 1870, 668 were of native and 906 of foreign birth. There were 179 blind, 141 deaf and dumb, 1,146 insane, and 87 idiotic. There were engaged in agriculture 47,863 persons, including 16,231 agricultural laborers, 24,061 farmers and planters, 1,930 stock herders, 1,860 stock raisers, and 293 vine growers; in professional and personal services 76,112, including 569 clergymen, 15,472 domestic servants, 209 journalists, 37,586 laborers (not specified), 1,115 lawyers, 64 metallurgists, 1,257 physicians and surgeons, and 1,953 teachers; in trade and transportation, 33,165; in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 81,508, of whom 3,310 were blacksmiths, 7,130 carpenters, and 36,339 miners.—The most striking feature in the physical geography of California is the existence of two great ranges of mountains running N. W. and S. E., and generally parallel, called the Sierra Nevada (snowy range), and the Coast range. The former shoots off from the latter on the south, the snow-capped Mt. San Bernardino, 11,600 ft. high, near lat. 34°, lon. 117°, being the connecting link. Thence it sweeps N. W. to about lat. 38° 45', lon. 120°, whence it extends due N., forming from that point the E. boundary of the state. At the N. end it is again united with the Coast range mountains by a transverse range in which is situated Mt. Shasta, 14,442 ft. high, in about lat. 41° 15'. The Sierra Nevada is by far the more lofty and rugged range, its summit being generally above the region of perpetual snow, and having several passes at a considerable elevation. In California it is 450 m. long and 80 m. wide, with an altitude varying from 5,000 to 15,000 ft. above the sea. Nearly its whole width is occupied with its western slope, which descends to a level of 300 ft. above the ocean; while the E. slope is only 5 or 6 m. wide, and terminates in the great basin, which is from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. above the sea. The sides of the Sierra Nevada to a height of about 2,500 ft. are covered with oak, manzanita, and nut pine, above which, to a height of 8,000 ft., dense forests of coniferous trees appear, which are succeeded by naked granite and snow. From its W. slope it sends off numerous spurs into the interior valley; and among these lies the great gold region discovered in 1848. The main chain attains its greatest general height in its S. portion, where Mt. Whitney rises to about 15,000 ft., and is surrounded by a large group of peaks not less than 13,000 ft. high; while the surrounding country for 300 sq. m. has an elevation of 8,000 ft. Mt. Shasta, in the N. portion, is 14,442 ft. high, and towers 7,000 ft. above all surrounding peaks. It is of volcanic origin, and is visible in every direction for more than 100 m. Other notable peaks are Lassen's, 10,577 ft., of volcanic origin; the Downieville buttes, 8,500 ft.; Pilot peak, 7,300; Castle peak, 13,000; Mt. Tyndall, 14,386; Mt. Brewer, 13,886; and Mt. Dana, 13,277. There are numerous passes in the Sierra Nevada; those most used in travel are the Johnson pass, 6,752 ft. high, in lat. 38° 50'; Henness, in 39° 50'; and Cajon de las Uvas, 4,256 ft., in 34° 50'. The Coast range, as its name indicates, runs along the coast, giving it a forbidding and dangerous rock-bound character. This range averages from 2,000 to 4,000 ft. in height, and is divided in its length by long narrow valleys, the Los Angeles, Salinas, Santa Clara, Sonoma, Napa, and others, and also by the bay of San Francisco. The breadth of the coast mountains (from the Pacific to the great valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin) does not exceed 40 m. in most parts of the entire length of the state. The valleys in the midst of these coast mountains, some of which are 60 m. long by 10 broad, possess an equable and genial climate. The Monte Diablo range, a division of the Coast range, covers a territory of about 150 m. long and from 20 to 30 m. wide, beginning at San Pablo bay on the north. Monte Diablo itself is 3,881 ft. high. Lying in front of this range are the Contra Costa hills, a marked feature of the scenery to be observed from San Francisco, which extend from the strait of Carquinez S. E. about 50. m., joining the main range near Mt. Hamilton, which is 4,440 ft. high. The chief peaks of the Coast range, besides those already mentioned, are Mt. Ripley, in Lake county, 7,500 ft.; San Carlos peak, in Fresno county, 4,977; and Mt. Downie, in Los Angeles county, 5,675. The mountains of this range are clothed throughout with luxuriant forests, and contain a great variety of minerals, of which some of the most valuable are found in abundance. Between the Coast range and the ocean occur numerous minor ranges and isolated hills, frequently approaching the water's edge, and enclosing a succession of the most beautiful, salubrious, and fertile valleys. To the north the Pacific slope is still more broken with low hills and mountains. The interlocking spurs of the Coast range and Sierra Nevada cover the whole northern end of the state, and give it a very broken and rugged character.—Between the Sierra Nevada and Coast range lies the great basin bearing the double name of the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, although really but one geographical formation. This extends N. and S. about 400 m., with an average breadth of from 50 to 60 m., and presents evidences of having once been the bed of a vast lake. It is drained from the north by the Sacramento river, and from the south by the San Joaquin, which, after meeting and uniting in the centre of the basin, break through the Coast range to the Pacific. At the S. extremity are the Tulare lakes and marshes, which in the wet season cover a large extent of surface. Along the great rivers the valleys are generally low and level, and extremely fertile, rising into undulating slopes and low hills as the mountains are approached on either side, and broken on the east by numerous spurs from the Sierra. At the N. end, between lat. 40° and 42°, is a high table land or plateau, about 120 m. long, and 5,000 ft. above the ocean level, lying between the main chain of the Sierra Nevada and a branch which extends N. W. toward Mt. Shasta. This plateau is an independent basin; its waters do not leave it, but flow into a few lakes where they are absorbed in the sands. The great basin of Utah, a mountainous barren tract of land, having an elevation of 4,000 or 5,000 ft. above the level of the sea, with no outlet for its waters, extends into the S. E. portion of California. This region is exceedingly arid and sterile, and is cut up by numerous irregular ridges of bare, rocky mountains, with intervening valleys of sand and volcanic matter. On the S. E. border of the state is a district about 140 m. long by 70 m. wide which belongs to the Colorado basin, and is known as the Colorado desert, on account of its barren, sandy soil and scanty vegetation.—California has a seacoast extending the whole length of the state, amounting, following the indentations, to somewhat over 700 m. The principal bays and harbors, beginning on the south, are San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Francisco, Tomales, Bodega, and Humboldt. San Francisco bay, the most capacious and best protected harbor on the W. coast of North America, is nearly 50 m. long (including its extension San Pablo bay) and about 9 m. wide. The entrance to the bay is in lat. 37° 48', lon. 122° 30', through a strait about 5 m. long, and a mile wide, and is named Chrysopylæ or Golden Gate. The peninsulas which separate the bay from the ocean are from 6 to 15 m. wide; on the S. one is situated the city of San Francisco. At the N. extremity of San Francisco bay, and connected with it, is the smaller bay of San Pablo, about 10 m. in diameter; and E. of this is that of Suisun, about 8 m. long by 4 m. wide. There are two capes, Mendocino, in lat. 40° 25', said to be the stormiest place on the coast, and Conception, in 34° 25', the S. limit of the cold fogs and cool summers. There are few islands on the coast, and they are small. The Farallones, or Needles, are a small group of seven islands, the nearest of which is about 20 m. W. of the Golden Gate. They consist of bare rugged rocks, which are the resort of large numbers of sea lions and birds. On the southernmost island is a first-class lighthouse. The other islands lie S. of Point Conception, the furthest one being about 60 m. from the mainland. They are named San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz, forming a group about 20 m. from the mainland opposite Santa Barbara county; San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente, which is the most southerly. They are hilly, rocky, and generally sterile. Some of them are used for sheep grazing, and others are the resort of great numbers of seal, otter, beaver, &c.—The Sacramento and San Joaquin are the most important rivers in California, the former having its head springs in Mt. Shasta and its connected spurs in the N. part of the state, and the latter rising in the Tulare lakes on the south; they flow toward each other, the former S. and the latter N., draining the great valley to which they jointly give name, until they finally unite near lat. 38°, turn abruptly W., and flow through Suisun bay into the bay of San Francisco. Nearly all the tributaries of these rivers are small, and flow chiefly from the Sierra Nevada, the principal being the Feather, with three considerable forks, the Yuba, and the American, flowing into the Sacramento, and the Calaveras, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced, into the San Joaquin. The Sacramento is about 370 m. long, and is navigable for large steamboats at all seasons to Sacramento, 90 m. from its mouth, or 120 m. from San Francisco, and for smaller craft to Red Bluff's, about 150 or 200 m. above Sacramento. The San Joaquin, about 350 m. long, is navigable for ordinary steamers to Stockton, and for small craft during the rainy season to the mouth of the Tulare slough, about 150 m. Kern river, between lat. 35° and 36°, forms the S. boundary of the mining region. The Klamath flows from Oregon through the N. W. corner of the state, with a considerable affluent from the south called the Trinity, and empties into the Pacific. The Salinas, or Buenaventura, flowing N. into the bay of Monterey, drains the valley between the Coast range and a minor one, called the Morena. The Rio Pajaro, having its outlet near that of the Salinas, and the Eel and Russian rivers on the north, are considerable streams. The Colorado, forming in part the S. E. boundary of the state, is an important river, flowing S. into the gulf of California, and navigable to Callville, 612 m. above its mouth. There are numerous streams of less importance on the S. coast, most of which are lost in the sands before reaching the ocean. There are few lakes worthy of mention in California. The largest is Tulare, in the S. part of the state, which is very shoal; it is about 33 m. long by 22 wide, though in the wet season it covers a much larger area. Owen's, Kern, and Buena Vista are much smaller lakes, in the same vicinity. Donner lake and Lake Tahoe are small bodies of water much visited by tourists, lying near the E. border of the state N. of San Francisco. Mono, 14 m. long from E. to W. and 9 m. wide, lies in Mono county, E. of the Sierra Nevada. The water, being saturated with various mineral substances, the chief of which are salt, lime, borax, and the carbonate of soda, is intensely bitter and saline, and of such high specific gravity that the human body floats in it very lightly. No living thing except the larva of a small fly and a small crustacean inhabits this lake, which is sometimes called the Dead sea of California. The other lakes are: Clear, in Lake county, in the W. part of the state, about 10 m. long; and Klamath and Goose lakes, lying partly in Oregon.—The geological survey of the state, under the direction of Prof. Whitney, has been in progress since 1860. Geologically considered, California belongs chiefly to the palæozoic and tertiary epochs. The rocks are principally granite formations of the secondary and tertiary ages; the former occurring in the high mountains, the latter in the valleys. A bituminous slate formation of the tertiary age extends through the state as far N. as Cape Mendocino, above which more recent formations are found. Much of the rock is metamorphic. The Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys are covered with a diluvium from 400 to 1,500 ft. deep. Throughout the coast range serpentine and silicious ferruginous rock occurs in connection with cinnabar. No older formation than the cretaceous is found except in the extreme northern part of the state. In the Monte Diablo range the mountain masses are almost wholly made up of cretaceous and tertiary strata, with instances of peculiar local metamorphism. The Contra Costa hills consist principally of cretaceous and tertiary strata, which are irregular in strike and dip. Near San Francisco the hills appear to be composed of an argillaceous sandstone, while jaspery rocks occur in the outskirts. In the coast ranges N. of the bay of San Francisco, while they are generally of similar character to those already described, silicious and jaspery rocks predominate, and serpentine is found in enormous masses. The geology of the S. part of the state is but little known. The Sierra Nevada range consists of a central mass of granite, flanked by metamorphic slates of secondary age. The highest summits and broadest mass of the chain in the S. portion are composed of granite; metamorphic slates, belonging to the E. flank, form the summits of the central portion, while the highest points of the N. portion of the chain are formed of volcanic rocks. The W. flank, at a considerable elevation, is marked at intervals along the Sacramento and San Joaquin valley by undisturbed marine tertiary and cretaceous strata. S. of Sacramento the tertiary strata are well developed, while further N. the cretaceous rests upon the upturned auriferous slates. Upon the cretaceous rest tertiary strata connected with volcanic material. Much of the N. portion of this chain is highly volcanic. In former eras there were probably many volcanoes in the range. Numerous fossil remains have been found in the state. Beds of marine shells have been met with on the shores of San Pablo bay, on the sides of Monte Diablo, and on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.—The mineralogy of California presents some marked peculiarities. Of the known mineral species, numbering about 700, only about 100 are found. Silicates, so common in volcanic rocks, and fluor spar and barytes, so abundant in the vein stones of other mining countries, are of rare occurrence. A not less marked feature is presented in the absence of zeolites. The number of minerals that have been successfully worked is exceedingly limited, comprising chiefly gold, mercury, copper, and silver. Of the mineral productions of California gold is beyond comparison the most important, the most remarkable gold fields in the world existing in the state. Though the metal has been found E. of the Sierra Nevada, among the mountains of the coast, and in various other localities, almost the entire product of the state has been derived from the great auriferous belt on the W. slope of the Sierra Nevada, extending from Fort Tejon northward into Oregon, and measuring about 220 m. by 40 wide. The gold deposits of the N. and S. extremities of this belt are of comparatively little importance. The central portion, embracing the W. parts of Mariposa, Tuolumne, Calaveras, Amador, El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Sierra, and Plumas, and the E. part of Yuba and Butte counties, forms the great gold-mining region. The gold, with rare exceptions, is found in the native or metallic state. It is never perfectly pure, but is always alloyed with more or less silver, and sometimes also with small quantities of other metals. It occurs extensively in two distinct and well defined conditions, viz.: in the solid rock, usually in veins, and in alluvial deposits in the form of minute scales, coarse grains, and larger pieces, more or less water-worn and mixed with the sand and gravel. The former class of deposits are known as auriferous quartz lodes, and the latter as placers. From this circumstance three distinct modes of mining have arisen, viz.: placer, hydraulic, and quartz or vein mining. In the first named, the metal is obtained by washing the auriferous gravel, by which process the gold, owing to its great specific gravity, is speedily separated from the sand and earthy matter. Owing to the simplicity of the process, placer mining was at first chiefly carried on, but has been largely superseded by hydraulic and quartz mining, which require more capital, skill, and complicated machinery. In hydraulic mining a body of water in a compact continuous stream is directed with great force upon banks or walls of auriferous earth and cemented gravel deposits, by means of powerful nozzles. The matter thus loosened, together with the water, is received in sluices in which the gold, having precipitated, is collected, while the worthless debris is carried away. In this manner many large hills have been levelled. The auriferous quartz occurs in veins and ledges, which are very numerous, and have a general N. N. W. and S. S. E. direction, parallel with the central axis of the Sierra Nevada. The rock is crushed in powerful mills and the gold extracted by amalgamation. The first of these mills were erected in 1851. In 1870 there were 421 (including 8 silver and 5 gold and silver), of which 206 were operated by steam, 198 by water, and 17 by steam and water. The total cost of machinery was$6,500,000; total number of stamps, 4,673. In addition to the stamps there are several hundred arastras. These mills are distributed among nearly all the counties of the state; but the most important mining counties are Nevada, containing 79 quartz mills with an aggregate of 742 stamps; Tuolumne, 41 mills; and El Dorado, 40. The most accurate estimate of the gold product of California since the discovery of that metal in 1848 is as follows:

 1848 $10,000,000 1849 40,000,000 1850 50,000,000 1851 55,000,000 1852 60,000,000 1853 65,000,000 1854 60,000,000 1855 55,000,000 1856 55,000,000 1857$55,000,000 1658 50,000,000 1859 50,000,000 1860 45,000,000 1861 40,000,000 1862 34,700,000 1863 30,000,000 1864 26,600,000 1865 $28,500,000 1866 26,500,000 1867 25,000,000 1868 25,000,000 1869 22,500,000 1870 24,000,000 1871 25,000,000 1872 24,000,000 Total$981,800 000

Next to gold, probably the most important mining interest of California is the production of quicksilver, which is obtained only from its sulphuret or cinnabar, of which deposits are found at many points; it occurs in the Sierra Nevada and in triassic rocks in the S. portion of the state, but most abundantly in the Coast range. In 1870 there were four establishments for smelting quicksilver, of which two were in Santa Clara co., and one each in Fresno and Lake counties. The capital invested was $3,500,000; wages paid during the year,$181,000; value of materials, $837,800; of products,$1,027,680. The New Almaden mine, in Santa Clara co., the oldest and most extensive in the state, produced from July, 1850, to December, 1867, 35,333,586 lbs. of quicksilver, or 461,887 flasks, from 214,775,175 lbs. of ore. The total production of the state in 1869 was 33,600 flasks; in 1870, 29,546; in 1871, 31,881. The exports of quicksilver from San Francisco during the five years ending with 1871 amounted to 126,767 flasks, of which 51,346 were to China, 42,391 to Mexico, 11,600 to South America, and 10,700 to New York. Ores of silver abound in various parts of the state, and some of them are very rich; but silver mining has not yet been developed to such a degree as to render it of any considerable importance. Argentiferous galena is mined at numerous localities in San Bernardino, Mono, Alpine, and Inyo counties; the mines of the last named county exceed in productiveness all others within the state. In 1870 there were in the last three counties 8 silver quartz mills, constructed at a cost of $332,500, besides 5 gold and silver quartz mills in Inyo co. Argentiferous copper ores are found in that part of the state bordering on Arizona, and argentiferous galena abounds in the island of Santa Catalina. Iron ores of superior quality exist in the Coast range mountains and in other parts of the state, but not generally under circumstances favorable to their reduction. The most valuable deposits are in Sierra co. The ores occur in a belt of metamorphic rocks, and are marked by an entire absence of arsenic, sulphur, phosphorus, and such other substances as tend to deteriorate the quality of the metal. The ores are magnetic, and of the same variety as those from which the best Swedish and Russian iron is made. Iron pyrites, or the sulphuret of iron, is found with gold in many of the quartz veins. Deposits of chromic iron and manganese exist in the Coast range. Copper ore has been found in various localities. Sulphuret of copper, or copper pyrites, is found in auriferous quartz lodes in nearly all the mining counties. Platinum abounds in the lower part of the Klamath valley. In the coast mountains asphaltum exists in immense quantities, and petroleum has been obtained to some extent by tunnelling. Deposits of lead and zinc have been discovered, but are yet undeveloped. Tin ore of a rich quality has been found, also plumbago, cobalt in various ores, a large lode of sulphuret of antimony, chalk, and chromium. Alum exists in Santa Clara and Calaveras counties, and at the Geysers and Owens's lake, where there are hot alum springs. Fine specimens of alabaster, marble, granite, and buhrstone have been obtained. The beautifully variegated Suisun marble occurs in the sandstones of the Pelevo hills. Bismuth, gypsum, and many varieties of precious stones occur throughout the mountains. Fine varieties of porcelain clay exist in many of the mining counties; and clay suitable for making fire brick is found near Benicia. Beds of hydraulic limestone, occupying a position between the sandstones and the shales, occur in the cretaceous strata, but cannot be obtained of sufficient size for use as an ornamental stone.—Of the non-metallic mineral products, the most important are coal, borax, sulphur, and salt. In 1860 valuable deposits of coal were discovered on the N. slope of Monte Diablo, in beds varying in width from 30 to 50 inches. Bituminous coal of good quality is obtained, which is taken by rail to the San Joaquin river, 5 m. distant, and shipped thence by water. In 1870 the shipments to San Francisco amounted to 129,761 tons, and in 1869 to 145,227. Coal also exists in the hills S. of Monte Diablo. In 1859 remarkable deposits of borax, or hiberate of soda, were discovered beneath the waters of Borax lake, near the S. extremity of Clear lake. The water of the lake, which generally covers about 100 acres at an average depth of 3 ft., is impregnated with borax. Beneath the water, in a thick layer of mud, borax abounds in crystals, some of which are 3 inches across. This mud has been tested and found to be charged with borax to the depth of 60 ft. There is another borax lake a few miles N. E. of Clear lake. On the edge of the latter is a group of boiling springs, scattered over an area of about eight acres, lightly charged with boracio acid, soda, and chlorine. These springs discharge about 300 gallons of water per minute. Sulphur occurs in various parts of the state, but most extensively near Clear lake and in Colusa co. Near the former place are immense deposits which yield 70 to 80 per cent. of pure brilliant sulphur. Salt is found at various points. The most extensive works are in Alameda co., near the bay of San Francisco, where the salt annually collected exceeds 10,000 tons. Mineral springs of every variety exist in abundance, some of which are highly esteemed for their medicinal qualities. In San Bernardino valley are numerous warm springs with temperatures varying from 108° to 172°.—The climate of California varies greatly in different parts, irrespective of the great range of latitude, 9½°, through which the state extends. It differs widely from that of the Atlantic slope in the same latitudes, and probably from that of any other country in the world. Properly speaking, California has several climates: the basin of the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys having one; the western slope of the Coast range, N. of lat. 35°, another; and that portion of the state S. of 35° still another. The climate W. of the Coast range is different from that E. of the same range, which is less than 60 m. in width. At San Francisco the mercury seldom rises above 80° in the dry, or falls below 40° in the wet season. A record of the climate of San Francisco, extending from 1850 to 1872, shows that the greatest degree of cold during that period was in January, 1854, when the mercury fell to 25°. The extreme of heat for the same period was 98° in September, 1852, a very unusual temperature for San Francisco. Snow very rarely falls there, and the winters bear a strong resemblance to the Indian summer of the Mississippi valley. The mercury seldom if ever remains at the freezing point 24 hours together. It is doubtful if any other country in the world has so cool summers and so warm winters, yet there are comparatively great changes in summer days, the mercury sometimes falling to 46° in July, and rising to 87°; variations of from 20° to 30° during 24 hours are not uncommon, yet the mean temperature of the coldest month is only about 10° lower than that of the warmest. The coolness of the summer nights is attributed to the extreme clearness of the atmosphere favoring radiation. The wind blows for a part of each day from the N. and N. W. along the coast nearly the whole year. During eight months of the year the prevailing wind in San Francisco is southwest. This wind commences pouring through the Golden Gate toward noon, and increases in violence and chilliness till late at night. Heavy fogs occur during the night in the months of June, July, and August, but are of rare occurrence in winter, when the winds are not so strong. The numerous sheltered valleys near the coast are comparatively free from winds and fogs, and have a delicious and equable climate. In the interior the extremes are much greater, the mercury in the Sacramento valley often rising in summer to 110° or 112°, and along the Colorado as high as 140°; but owing to the extreme dryness of the atmosphere, this great heat is much less prostrating in its effect than even a considerably lower temperature on the Atlantic slope, and the nights are never so hot as to prevent sleep. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin basin the mean temperature of the winter is about 4° below that of the coast, and of the summer from 20° to 30° above. The greater heat of summer is supposed to result from the absence of the ocean breezes and fogs, and the cold of winter from the proximity to the snow-capped Sierra Nevada. Southern California is said to possess a better climate than Italy. S. of San Francisco and in the San Joaquin valley frost is rarely known. Roses bloom throughout the winter, and many trees retain their foliage green the year round. The air, peculiarly warm and dry, is wonderfully healthful and highly favorable to consumptives and persons subject to diseases of the throat. For this reason, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Stockton, and Visalia have become popular winter resorts for invalids. At San Diego (lat. 32° 44', lon. 117° 6') the prevailing wind during ten months of the year is west. The mean temperature for the year and for the seasons at various localities is shown in the following statement: PLACES. Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Year.  San Francisco Sacramento Monterey Santa Barbara San Diego Fort Yuma Humboldt Bay  56 .5° 56 54 60 .46 60 72 52  60 ° 69 .5 59 69 .58 71 90 57 .5  59 ° 61 57 65 .9 64 .5 75 .5 53  51 ° 46 .5 51 53 .33 52 .5 57 43 .5  56 .6° 58 55 .5 60 .2 62 73 .5 51 .5 California has a rainy and a dry season, the former nearly corresponding to the winter, and the latter to the summer of the Atlantic region. The rains begin at the north early in autumn, but do not fall in the latitude of San Francisco, in any appreciable quantity, until about the middle of December, which is the month of greatest rain. The rainy season terminates toward the end of May. June, July, August, and September are dry, only 2.5 inches of rain having fallen in these months collectively in 17 years. It has been estimated that there are on an average 220 perfectly clear days in a year; 85 days more or less cloudy; and 60 rainy. Observations covering a period of 17 years show the mean fall of rain in San Francisco to be in January, 4.51 inches; February, 3.08; March, 2.76; April, 1.74; May, .82; June, .05; July, .02; August, .01; September, .9; October, .57; November, 2.74; December, 5.37. The average fall, in inches, for the seasons and the year at different localities is:  PLACES. Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Year. San Francisco 6.64 .13 3.31 11.33 21.41 Sacramento 7.01 .00 2.61 12.11 21.73 Humboldt Bay 13.51 1.18 4.87 15.08 34.56 Fort Yuma 0.27 1.80 0.86 0.72 3.15 San Diego 2.74 0.55 1.24 5.90 10.43 Snow is very rare on the coast and in the valleys, and never remains for many days except in the Klamath valley, where there is sometimes a month's sleighing during the winter. There are many mining towns high up in the mountains where the snow falls to a great depth, and lies till late in the spring. Hail rarely occurs. A marked phenomenon of the climate is the comparative absence of thunder and lightning. During autumn many of the rivers sink in the sand soon after leaving the mountains in which they rise; the plains and hills are baked hard to the depth of many inches; the grass and herbage, except near springs and in swampy ground, are dried up and burned as brown as the earth they grow upon. Earthquake shocks are quite frequent in California, but rarely so severe as to do any damage. Sand storms, similar to the simooms of Africa, but less dangerous, sometimes occur in the Colorado desert. The climate is remarkably adverse to epidemic diseases. Malarious fevers, but not generally of a severe type, occur in many of the interior valleys. Of the 9,025 deaths reported by the census of 1870, 3,539 were from general diseases, 1,104 from affections of the nervous, 436 of the circulatory, 854 of the respiratory, 1,093 of the digestive, and 816 of the integumentary system.—California is no less remarkable for its vegetable productions than for its mineral wealth. This is owing rather to the highly favorable climate than to superiority of soil. The soil of the valleys, both on the coast and in the interior, is generally fertile, and consists of a gravelly clay with a rich sandy loam. The greater part of the farming lands lies in the valley of the Sacramento and in southern California. The Sacramento valley contains about 5,000,000 acres, much of which is very fertile and never needs irrigation. Southern California, which includes the San Joaquin valley and its extensions, the Tulare and Kern valleys, together with the parallel counties on the coast, is the garden of the state. Its soil is rich, but needs irrigation. In 1871 90,344 acres were artificially irrigated. All the fruits and cereals of the temperate zones are produced in abundance throughout the state; while in the southern districts nearly all the most valuable products of the tropics are cultivated with success. In many of the southern counties two crops are taken annually from the same field. In 1870 the average yield per acre of the principal crops was: Indian corn, 35.6 bushels; wheat, 19; rye, 38; oats, 35.5; barley, 26.9; buckwheat, 32.5; potatoes, 148; hay, 1.48 tons. The product of barley is greater than that of any other state in the Union, two crops being gathered in a year. Wild oats grow luxuriantly in the Sacramento valley and to the westward; this euros in the dry season and affords excellent fodder. In the San Joaquin valley are some of the finest wheat fields in the world. California wheat is noted for its superior quality in the markets of the United States and Europe. Rye, buckwheat, and Indian corn are little cultivated, the nights being too cold for the last named. Cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane have been cultivated with success, while the marsh lands will produce rice. The sugar beet, which is planted in January, grows to an enormous size and is easy of cultivation; it is said to be much richer in sugar than the beet of France. The manufacture of beet sugar has been undertaken on a pretty large scale, and has met with encouraging success. There is an extensive manufactory near Sacramento, and another at Alvarado. In 1872 the former had 11,600 acres planted with beets, and the latter 500 acres yielding about 12 tons to the acre, while the average yield of sugar is 160 lbs. to each ton of beets. The production of beet sugar promises to become one of the leading industries of the state. The climate is peculiarly favorable to the growth of hops, the yield being about 1,500 lbs. per acre. Chiccory grows luxuriantly; there are two manufactories in San Francisco for the preparation of the root to be used as coffee. There is little sward in the state; a few varieties of grass grow on the hillsides. The counties forming the central coast section constitute the chief dairy district. The production of fruits is unparalleled both in variety and amount, and includes apples, apricots, cherries, figs, grapes, lemons, oranges, nectarines, olives, plums, pears, peaches, pomegranates, pineapples, prunes, quinces, bananas, limes, citrons, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, gooseberries, currants, raisins, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, &c. Fruits generally attain a much larger size than in the eastern states. In 1872 there were in the state 38,991 orange trees in flourishing condition, 7,381 lemon, 45,655 fig, 38,486 olive, 59,478 almond, and 51,606 apricot trees; besides 2,446,523 apple, 835,321 peach, 356,252 pear, 243,058 plum, and 19,059 prune trees. These, with several other varieties of tropical fruits in the southern counties, are brought to maturity with very little care, and bear abundance of excellent fruit. California is widely celebrated for its production of grapes and wines. There are more than 30,000 acres planted with vines, which grow both in the lowlands and on the hillsides. The average number of vines per acre is about 900, which give an average yield of 800 gallons of wine and 20 of brandy. The grape region extends from the S. boundary about 600 m. northerly, with an average breadth of about 100 m., and includes three distinct wine districts: the southern, or Los Angeles, making port and other sweet wines, together with some white wines; the Coast range, including Sonoma and Napa counties, producing white and red acid wines, hock, sauterne, claret, &c.; and the foot hills of the Sierra Nevada, making dry wines of excellent quality, sherry, madeira, teneriffe, &c. The wines of California resemble those of Spain, Hungary, and Greece, rather than those of France, Italy, or Germany. Of the total production of wine, 3,092,330 gallons in the United States in 1870, according to the census, 1,804,656 gallons were produced in California; but local returns make the amount several times larger. Raisins are also successfully produced. The production and manufacture of silk form an important branch of industry. The white and black mulberry trees thrive here, attaining a growth in three years equal to that of five years in France, while the yield of leaves is much greater. Two crops of cocoons are raised in the year, in May and July, the whole process requiring six weeks. The extraordinary advantages of climate render artificial heat unnecessary; the cocooneries are singularly free from disease. The number of mulberry trees in the state in 1870, as officially returned, was 1,609,822, and the production of silk cocoons in that year was 3,587 lbs. A silk manufacturing company has been organized in San Francisco.—Next to Australia, California is regarded as the best country in the world for sheep raising. No shelter is needed for the flock, while the fleeces are remarkably heavy and of superior quality. It is said that one third of the wool product is a second crop, clipped in the autumn. In 1870 California produced more wool than any other state in the Union except Ohio. The Angora or Cashmere goat has been successfully introduced into the state; the number in 1870 was 24,097. There were no bees in the state prior to 1850, but they are now kept in large numbers with great success, and the production of honey is very large.—In 1870 there were in the state 6,218,133 acres of improved land, 477,880 of woodland, and 4,731,092 of other unimproved land. The cash value of farms was$141,240,028, of farming implements and machinery $5,316,690; wages paid during the year, including the value of board,$10,369,247; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $49,856,024; orchard products,$1,384,480; produce of market gardens, $1,059,779; forest products,$566,017; home manufactures, $301,491; animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter,$6,112,503; livestock, $37,964,752. There were 192,273 horses, 17,533 mules and asses, 164,093 cows, 5,944 working oxen, 461,361 other cattle, 2,768,187 sheep, and 441,617 swine. The chief productions were 16,676,702 bushels of wheat, 26,275 of rye, 1,221,222 of Indian corn, 1,757,507 of oats, 8,783,490 of barley, 21,928 of buckwheat, 380,010 of peas and beans, 2,049,227 of Irish and 202,035 of sweet potatoes, 1,353 of clover seed, 13,294 of flax seed, 551,773 tons of hay, 34 bales of cotton, 11,391,743 lbs. of wool, 7,969,744 of butter, 3,395,074 of cheese, 3,693,021 gallons of milk sold, 1,814,656 of wine, 625,064 lbs. of hops, 31,740 of flax, 3,587 of silk cocoons, 294,326 of honey, and 4,903 of wax.—The flora of California is remarkable for containing the largest and most beautiful coniferous trees in the world, including the mammoth tree, redwood, sugar pine, red fir, yellow fir, and arbor vitæ, which attain to unparalleled sizes. A great part of the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, the Colorado desert, the E. slope of the coast mountains, and the Coast range S. of lat. 35° are treeless. Fine forests exist on the Sierra Nevada and the W. slope of the Coast range N. of 35°. The timber of the Sierra is chiefly spruce, pine, and fir; that of the coast, N. of 37°, redwood, and S. of that latitude spruce and pine. There are fine groves of oak on the foot hills of the Sierra Nevada and the coast valleys. The most remarkable of these trees are the mammoth tree (sequoia gigantea, Endl.), found only in California, and the redwood (sequoia sempervirens, Endl.). The former has been found only in small groves on the Sierra Nevada, at a height of about 4,500 ft. above the sea level. The first known specimens were a cluster of 92 within a space of 50 acres, in Calaveras co., since become a resort of tourists, and named Big Tree grove. Five or six other collections of them have been found: three in Mariposa co., containing 134 trees over 15 ft. in diameter, and nearly 300 smaller ones; one in Tuolumne, and one or two in Tulare co. In all these groves there are many trees from 275 to 376 ft. high, from 25 to 34 ft. in diameter, and of exceedingly graceful proportions; and some of the largest that have been felled indicate an age, by the ordinary mode of reckoning, of from 2,000 to 2,500 years. The dimensions of one tree in the Tulare group were, according to measurements made by members of the state geological survey, 276 ft. high, 106 in circumference at base, and 76 at a point 12 ft. above the ground. The redwood, which bears a strong resemblance to the mammoth tree and is sometimes mistaken for it, frequently grows to a height of 300 ft. and a diameter of 15 ft. It is found on the plains or mountains near the ocean, and grows in large dense groves. The sugar pine (pinus Lambertiana) is a magnificent tree in size, and one of the most graceful of the evergreens. It grows about 300 ft. high and 12 ft. in diameter at the base. The wood is free-splitting and valuable for timber. It is found in the Sierra Nevada. Instead of emitting the resinous substance of the ordinary pine, it furnishes a saccharine sap, which by evaporation becomes granulated and crystallized, and has very much the appearance and taste of common sugar. The Douglas spruce (pinus Douglasii), the yellow pine (P. trachyptera), and the white cedar (libocedrus decurrens) are all large trees, growing more than 200 ft. high and 6 or 8 ft. through at the butt. The nut pine (P. edulis), the cones of which contain edible seeds about the size of the kernel of a plum stone, grows on the coast mountains and at the base of the Sierra Nevada, and is of little value. The California white oak is a large, low-branching, wide-spreading tree, with a crooked trunk, and is of no value except for firewood. Among the other trees and shrubs are the evergreen oak, madrona, manzanita, willow, sycamore, bay tree, cottonwood, horse chestnut, live oak, spruce, fir, cedar, and various other trees of commercial value. The almond grows wild in the coast mountains in Santa Clara co. A wild coffee tree, bearing a berry much resembling the real coffee, grows in Calaveras co. Many species of California trees and shrubs, which bear a strong resemblance to species found in the Atlantic states and Europe, are not the same, and many of the trees of other parts of the continent do not grow here. The botany of the state generally presents peculiar characteristics, offering a highly interesting field for scientific investigation.—Of the native quadrupeds of California, the grisly bear is the largest and most formidable. It grows to be 4 ft. high and 7 ft. long, weighing 2,000 lbs. when very large and fat. Other quadrupeds are the black bear, cougar, wolf, wolverene, wildcat, coyote (an animal between a fox and a wolf), moose, elk, antelope, mountain sheep, deer, lynx, fox, badger, raccoon, marmot, hare, rabbit, squirrel, &c. Of fur-bearing animals, the sea and land otter, seal, beaver, and muskrat are found. Of birds, the most remarkable is the California vulture (cathartes Californianus), the largest rapacious bird of North America, and next to the condor the largest flying bird in the world. Its total length is about 4 ft., and its width from tip to tip of the outstretched wings 10 ft. or more. Other birds are the golden and bald eagle, turkey buzzard, hawks of various kinds, gerfalcon, owl, raven, shrike, robin, thrush, lark, magpie, jay, woodpecker, humming bird, swallow, grouse, curlew, goose, duck, penguin, pelican, albatross, and various other game and sea birds. Of fishes, there are the sturgeon, bass, mackerel, codfish, crawfish, blackfish, halibut, sharks, trout, salmon trout, smelts, sardines, salmon, clams, oysters, lobsters, and crabs. In the San Joaquin valley and on the S. coast are extensive ranches where large herds run almost wild, the cattle being branded to indicate ownership.—Among the many remarkable natural curiosities of California is the valley of the Yosemite with its surrounding cascades and mountain peaks. It is situated in Mariposa co., on the W. slope of the Sierra, midway between its E. and W. base, at an elevation of 4,060 ft. above the sea. It is 140 m. in a direct line a little S. of E. from San Francisco, but about 250 by any usually travelled route. Here, within a space of less than 20 m. long and 10 m. wide, is probably presented more grand and beautiful scenery than is found in any similar area in the world. (See Yosemite.) By act of congress, the Yosemite valley, embracing 36,111 acres, and the Big Tree grove in Mariposa county, 2,589 acres, have been granted to California to be held for all time as places of public resort. The Geysers are also remarkable natural phenomena. There is a collection of hot sulphur springs, more than 300 in number, covering about 200 acres, in a deep gorge in the N. E. part of Sonoma county. They are about 1,700 ft. above the sea, and are surrounded by mountains from 3,000 to 4,000 ft. high. Hot and cold, quiet and boiling springs are found within a few feet of each other. (See Geysers.) There are five natural bridges in California. The largest is on a small creek emptying into the Hay Fork of Trinity river, 80 ft. long, with its top 170 ft. above the water. In Siskiyou co. there are two about 30 ft. apart, 90 ft. long; and there are two more on Coyote creek in Tuolumne co., the larger 285 ft. long. The most noted caves are the Alabaster cave in Placer co., containing two chambers, the larger 200 ft. long by 100 wide; and the Bower cave in Mariposa co., having a chamber about 100 ft. square, reached by an entrance 70 ft. long. The most recently discovered of the great natural wonders of the state is the petrified forest about 75 m. N. of San Francisco, the existence of which was first made public in 1870. Portions of nearly 100 distinct trees of great size, prostrate and scattered over a tract three or four miles in extent, were found, some on the surface and others projecting from the mountain side. The silicified trees appear on examination to have been conifers. Remarkable mud volcanoes exist in the Colorado desert, where the surface is below the level, of the sea. They cover an area a quarter of a mile long by an eighth of a mile wide, consisting of soft mud through which hot water and steam are constantly escaping, while the mud is kept in continuous movement. The mammoth tree groves are entitled to be ranked among the most attractive of natural curiosities. From its great diversities of surface and general physical peculiarities, California presents innumerable examples of picturesque scenery and objects of interest to devotees of nature and of scientific research.—Until within a few years manufacturing industry was confined to those departments required by the more pressing local wants; but recently great enterprise and activity have been manifested in the manufacture of woollen goods, lumber, flour, iron, and glass, besides wine, silk, and sugar, which have been produced to such extent as to form articles of export. The great water power afforded by the mountain streams in the N. and E. parts of the state, and the remarkable productions of the soil, give to California peculiar advantages for manufacturing, which have as yet been but partially developed; but this industry is rapidly increasing in importance. In 1870 the total number of manufacturing establishments was 3,984, employing 604 steam engines of 18,493 horse power, and 271 water wheels of 6,877 horse power. There were employed 25,392 hands, of whom 24,040 were males above 16,873 females above 15, and 479 youth. The capital invested amounted to$39,728,202; wages paid during the year, $13,136,722; value of materials consumed,$35,351,193; of products, $66,595,556. The chief industries are shown in the following table:  INDUSTRIES. No. of establishments. STEAM ENGINES. Hands employed. Capital. Wages. Materials. Products. Number. Horse power. Boots and shoes 420 ...... ........ 1,526$489,854 $629,873$966,952 $2,214,807 Clothing, men's 108 ...... ........ 528 177,503 295,282 470,102 1,090,270 Clothing, women's 69 ...... ........ 299 174,878 84,200 514,850 738,339 Flouring and grist mill products 115 77 3,406 690 2,590,400 384,993 7,404,951 9,036,385 Gold and silver reduced and refined 2 1 10 85 110,000 85,000 375,000 375,000 Iron castings, not specified 27 23 482 647 775,000 370,845 633,454 1,189,841 Iron castings, stoves, heaters, and hollow ware 4 5 95 80 122,000 64,000 78,900 190,120 Liquors, distilled 16 2 35 75 386,200 30,789 462,494 1,099,207 Liquors, malt 96 22 188 389 1,118,070 227,242 696,215 1,641,174 Liquors, vinous 189 2 80 752 658,420 90,659 203,631 602,558 Lumber, planed 22 20 661 407 374,000 290,458 448,800 1,052,000 Lumber, sawed 291 184 6,796 4,077 3,856,440 1,620,626 1,986,119 5,227,064 Machinery, not specified 29 24 419 404 766,600 673,233 667,667 1,622,117 Machinery, steam engines and boilers 17 13 302 586 564,050 536,645 227,200 1,737,700 Molasses and sirup, refined 8 4 725 255 1,800,000 166,000 3,225,050 8,904,046 Printing and publishing, newspapers 50 4 31 548 843,300 534,572 446,080 1,528,446 Quartz, milled 114 39 1,257 676 1,749,272 436,241 1,927,281 3,405,778 Quicksilver, smelted 4 1 64 256 3,500,000 181,000 837,800 1,027,680 Tobacco, cigars 88 ...... ........ 1,834 681,845 523,555 778,426 1,909,917 Woollen goods 5 6 435 659 1,785,000 230,200 608,141 1,102,754 A branch of the United States mint has been in operation in San Francisco since 1854. The total coinage to June 30, 1872, amounted to 36,970,749 pieces, valued at$347,756,265, of which $338,026,553 was gold and$9,729,712 silver. The entire deposits of domestic gold at the mint during this period amounted to $337,007,047, of which$227,735,528 was the production of California. During the year ending June 30, 1872, 3,593,200 pieces, valued at $26,482,080, were coined, of which$25,344,840 was gold and $1,137,240 silver. The deposits of gold amounted to$25,356,270, and of silver $1,039,822. This amount exceeds that of any previous year except 1856, when the total coinage amounted to$28,516,147. The total amount of domestic gold and silver from California deposited for coinage at the United States mint and branches to June 30, 1872, was $643,121,449, of which$642,965,026 was gold and $156,423 silver. The total amount of gold from California deposited at the United States mint and branches and assay offices during the year ending June 30, 1872, was$6,892,377; silver, $75,462. In 1871 there were built in San Francisco 17 vessels of 2,249 tons, of which 12 were sailing vessels, 4 steamers, and 1 barge. There is an extensive navy yard on Mare island, in San Pablo bay, 28 m. above San Francisco, which is the only United States navy yard on the Pacific coast.—The commerce of California is mainly carried on through San Francisco, which is the only port of entry in the state. The number of vessels which entered and cleared during the year ending June 30, 1871, was:  CLASSES. ENTERED. CLEARED. No. Tons. No. Tons. Foreign Ports. American vessels 177 82,886 246 150,021 Foreign 158 106,375 158 98,666 Amer. ocean steamers 68 161,610 66 153,878 Foreign ocean steamers 3 2,622 4 2,691 Coastwise. Steamers 51 52,174 57 57,276 Sailing vessels 121 92,198 143 66,700 Fisheries 32 5,802 28 5,764 ⁠Total 610 503,667 702 539,992 The whole number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed was 926, of 133,300 tons, including 720 sailing and 143 steam vessels and 63 barges. The total value of imports from foreign countries was$20,384,907; domestic exports, $20,791,414; foreign exports,$2,856,116. The most important articles of import, with their values, were: silver coin, $3,567,132; 44,582,721 lbs. of brown sugar,$2,227,021; 11,392,825 of coffee, $1,270,245; 398,191 of raw silk,$2,053,892; 3,612,751 of tea, $1,233,729; 29,184,429 of rice,$824,544. The chief domestic exports were 5,903,427 bushels of wheat, valued at $7,080,510; 287,619 of barley,$162,107; 198,223 barrels of flour, $1,173,638; gold bullion,$2,715,574; gold coin, $2,502,482; silver bullion,$3,077,256; and 993,920 lbs. of quicksilver. Among the foreign exports was $2,316,990 silver coin. The chief countries represented in this commerce were:  COUNTRIES. Imports from Domestic exports to Foreign exports to Brazil$46,386 $137,256$24,591 Central America 1,185,101 298,627 19,271 China 3,921,210 2,774,315 1,719,397 England 3,269,368 12,148,586 28,964 France 1,349,210 ......... ........ Japan 1,873,858 985,240 637,148 Mexico 3,681,903 944,891 155,377 Peru 676,255 1,658,014 41,989 Russia ........ 1,875,693 ........ Sandwich Islands 901,114 604,424 41,509

The total shipments of domestic commodities from San Francisco to New York via the isthmus of Panama amounted to $2,060,281, including 5,390,873 lbs. of wool, valued at$1,116,375; and the foreign, chiefly teas, furs, and skins, $100,825; while the shipments from New York to San Francisco by this route were valued at$9,391,607. Shipments of merchandise from San Francisco since 1848 have averaged about $7,250,000 a year, and the treasure about$43,000,000, making a total yearly average of $50,225,000. The shipments of merchandise from San Francisco over the Central Pacific railroad for the first 10 months of 1871, and the corresponding period of the preceding year, were:  ARTICLES. 1870. 1871. Tea, lbs. 1,712,271 13,255,716 Coffee, lbs. 22,560 883,557 Silk, lbs. 110,686 782,949 Wine, gallons 1,011,812 1,692,210 Wool, lbs. 5,679,364 15,970,384 Salmon, lbs. 852,219 802,299 Hops, lbs. 99,322 146,071 Leather, lbs. 675,390 1,265,709 Furs, lbs. 870,620 888,309 Glue, lbs. 45,526 125,567 Quicksilver, lbs. ........ 137,134 Whale oil, gallons ........ 827,537 Cod fishing along the Pacific coast N. of San Francisco is extensively carried on by vessels from that port. In 1870 the number of vessels engaged was 33; lbs. of salted fish obtained, 10,612,000; value,$754,840. From 1864 to 1870 inclusive 30,958,400 lbs. of salted fish were obtained, valued at $2,457,414. Four vessels of 853 tons were engaged in the whale fishery in 1870.—In 1860 there were but 23 miles of railroad in the state, but since then the progress in their construction has been rapid. The number of miles in 1865 was 214; in 1870, 925; and in 1873, 1,130. The most important railroad is the Central Pacific, extending from San Francisco to Ogden, Utah, where it joins the Union Pacific; 262 miles of this road lie in the state. Its construction was begun in February, 1863, at Sacramento, the portion between that city and San Francisco having been built by another company. It was completed to the state line in January, 1868, and to Ogden in May, 1869. The summit of the Sierra Nevada at the point crossed by this road is 7,042 ft. above the sea. The most important of its branches is the Oregon division, which will extend from Sacramento to the state line, where it will connect with the Oregon and California for Portland. The Southern Pacific will extend from San Francisco to the Colorado river, opposite Arizona, where it will meet the Atlantic and Pacific railroad from St. Louis, Mo. The San Francisco and Northern Pacific will extend from Saucelito on the bay of San Francisco, opposite the city, to Humboldt bay. The Sacramento Valley railroad is the oldest in the state, having been in operation since 1856. The railroads in operation at the beginning of 1873 were: NAMES Capital stock. Termini as completed in 1873. Length, miles. Central Pacific$100,000,000
 San Francisco, Ogden, Utah. Sacramento, Reading. ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\\\ \ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ San Francisco, San José. Lathrop, Visalia. Oakland, Brooklyn. Alameda, Hayward. San Francisco, Sacramento. ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Sacramento, Marysville. Napa Junction, Calistoga. San Francisco, Cloverdale. Sacramento, Shingio Springs. San Francisco, Pajaro. Goshen, Tipton. Stockton, Oakdale.
262[1]
Central Pacific Oregon division ..........  170
Central Pacific Branches ..........  50
152
5
15
California Pacific 12,000,000  90
California Pacific Branches ..........  57
35
San Francisco and North Pacific 86,600,000  90
Sacramento Valley 1,000,000  49
Southern Pacific 70,000,000  100
Southern Pacific Southern Extension  ..........  21
Stockton and Copperopolis 1,500,000  34
1. In the state; total length, 881 m.

Lines of steamships run regularly four times a month from San Francisco to Panama, and monthly to Japan, China, and India, the Hawaiian Islands, Australia, and New Zealand. There is a monthly line to Alaska and a bimonthly one to Nicaragua, while various lines run frequently to different ports in Mexico, South America, Oregon, and California. The surveys for a ship canal from Stockton to deep water on the San Joaquin river, about 15 m. below, have been completed. There are several lines of telegraph connecting San Francisco with the east and with different parts of the Pacific coast.—In 1872 California contained 13 national and state banks, with an aggregate capital of $10,900,000; of these 6, with a capital of$9,050,000, were in San Francisco. There were 20 savings banks, with 58,713 depositors, and deposits aggregating $47,784,372; 10 of these, with 42,999 depositors and$40,369,405 deposits, were in San Francisco. In 1871 there were 7 California fire and marine insurance companies, with a capital of $3,350,000 and accumulations to the amount of$2,087,967; and 2 life insurance companies, with a paid-up capital of $100,000; 24 fire and marine insurance companies of other states and countries, with a paid-up capital of$17,000,000, have agencies in the state, and 35 foreign life insurance companies.—The constitution of California is similar in its general features to those of the older members of the Union. It was adopted Nov. 13, 1849, and has been twice amended. By its provisions, foreigners who are bona fide residents are secured the same rights in respect to property as native-born citizens. No public debt shall be created exceeding at any time the sum of $300,000, except upon a specific vote of the people, and then within certain prescribed limits. Amendments to the constitution must be approved by two sessions of the legislature, between which a general election for assemblymen occurs, and by the people. A convention to revise the constitution may be called by the people, the question having been submitted to them by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. The right of suffrage is conferred on all white male citizens 21 years of age, not convicted of crime or idiotic, resident 6 months in the state and 30 days in the county or district; but by the operation of the 15th amendment to the federal constitution, colored citizens are entitled to vote. Elections for state officers, members of congress, and of the legislature are held biennially on the first Tuesday in September (odd years); the superintendent of public instruction and the judges are chosen at a special election held in October. A plurality of the votes cast is sufficient for a choice. The legislative department consists of an assembly composed of not more than 80 members nor less than 30, and a senate of not more than one half nor less than one third of the number of assemblymen. There are now (1873) 40 senators who are elected for four years, one half being elected every second year, and 80 assemblymen, elected for two years. The legislature meets biennially in Sacramento on the first Monday in December of the odd years; the session is limited to 90 days, but may be extended by joint resolution. All white male citizens resident one year in the state and six months in the district are eligible to membership. The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney general, surveyor general, and superintendent of public instruction, chosen by the people for four years. The qualification of all for eligibility is an age of 25 years or over, and a citizenship and residence in the state of two years. A two-thirds vote of the legislature is required to pass any measure over the executive veto. The judiciary consists of a supreme court with five justices, elected by the people for ten years, having appellate jurisdiction in civil cases where the amount in dispute exceeds$300, in questions of the legality of taxes, &c., and in criminal cases amounting to felony; district courts (now 17 in number), with one judge each, elected for six years, having original jurisdiction in law and equity in civil cases where the amount exceeds $200, and unlimited jurisdiction in all criminal cases not otherwise provided for, and in issues of fact joined in probate courts; county courts, consisting of one judge in each county, elected for four years, who performs the duties of surrogate or probate judge, and, with two justices of the peace, holds courts of special sessions; and such a number of justices of the peace in each county, town, city, or village, and with such powers, as the legislature may direct. There is a separate probate court for San Francisco co., and a criminal court for the city of San Francisco; the judge of the latter is elected for four years. All property, both real and personal, of the wife before marriage, and that acquired by her after marriage, is by the laws of the state her sole and separate property; but the earnings of both wife and husband are common property, except that the earnings of the former are not liable for the debts of the latter. When separate and apart from her husband, the earnings of the wife and those of minor children with her are hers, and she may sue and be sued alone, and convey alone by leave of the court, and married women may dispose of their separate estate by will. A homestead not exceeding$5,000 in value belonging to a head of family, or $1,000 to a single person, is exempt from levy on execution. Treason and murder in the first degree may be punished with death; murder in the second degree and robbery from the person with imprisonment from ten years to life; manslaughter, not more than ten years; killing in a duel, one to seven years; mayhem, not over 14 years; rape, from five years to life; arson, one year to life; forgery and perjury, one to 14 years. Indians and Chinese are prohibited from giving evidence in court for or against whites. The immigration of Chinese is discouraged, and special taxes are imposed upon them. Any rate of interest may be legally stipulated for; in the absence of special agreement, the rate is 10 per cent. California has four representatives and two senators in congress, and is therefore entitled to six votes in the electoral college. The laws of the state have recently been revised and arranged under a civil code, political code, code of civil procedure, and penal code, which have been approved by the legislature. The total debt of the state in 1861 amounted to$4,621,212, and in 1871 was reported by the state treasurer as follows:

Funded Debt.

 Bonds of 1857 $2,162,000 00 Bonds of 1860 125,000 00 Soldiers' bounty bonds 605,000 00 Soldiers' relief bonds 849,500 00 State capital bonds 250,000 00 ⁠Total funded debt$3,491,500 00 Warrants outstanding 155,347 00 ⁠Grand total, June 30, 1871 $3,646,847 00 According to the federal census of 1870, the public debt of counties amounted to$13,817,711, and of towns, cities, &c., $842,344. The total receipts into the state treasury during the fiscal year were$3,508,164; of which $2,166,923 were from direct taxes,$34,113 from licenses, $514,003 from lands,$166,795 from stamps, $57,196 from commissioners of immigration,$24,756 from fees, $191,278 from harbor commissioners,$244,000 from school fund, $39,250 from insurance companies, and$69,850 from miscellaneous sources. The total disbursements from the state treasury were $3,814,037; of which$81,659 were for the executive department, $277,939 for legislative expenses,$120,809 for the judiciary, $30,232 for state library,$65,000 for printing, $108,410 for state prison,$189,597 for asylum for insane, $54,500 for deaf, dumb, and blind,$11,030 for industrial school, $503,067 for educational purposes and schools,$125,050 for charitable purposes, $78,779 for lands,$30,128 for encouragement of manufactures and agriculture, $273,531 for state capitol,$89,611 for wharves and docks, $235,210 for sea wall,$325,448 for school fund, $371,542 for interest,$538,862 for redemption of state debt, $25,000 for geological survey,$40,562 for military purposes, $50,000 for legal tenders, and$188,071 for miscellaneous purposes. The total taxation not national was: state, $2,540,383; county,$5,068,041; town, city, &c., $208,691; total,$7,817,115. The assessed value of real estate was $176,527,160; of personal estate,$93,116,903; total, $269,644,068; true value of real and personal estate$638,767,017. The internal revenue collections in 1871 were $3,606,921. The advance in the assessed value of property in ten years is shown in the following statement: 1861,$147,811,617 16; 1862, $160,369,071 81; 1863,$174,104,955 07; 1864, $180,484,949 85; 1865,$183,509,161 00; 1866, $200,764,135 50; 1867,$212,205,339 01; 1868, $237,483,175 07; 1869,$260,563,886 08; 1870, $277,538,134 97. A state lunatic asylum was established at Stockton by act of the legislature in 1853; the buildings are commodious and well arranged, with 100 acres of ground handsomely laid out; the number of patients, Oct. 1, 1871, was 1,090, of whom 304 were females; 523 were received during the year, of whom 333 were foreigners. The recoveries are about 47 per cent, of the admissions, and the deaths about 10 per cent. of the whole number treated. The total expenditures for the two years ending Oct. 1, 1871, amounted to$414,162. A state institution for deaf, dumb, and blind was established at Oakland in 1866. The building, which is 194 by 148 ft., is erected upon a tract of 135 acres. The number of deaf and dumb receiving instruction in 1871 was 65, of whom 26 were females; number of instructors, 3; annual expenditure, $158,098; number of blind, 33; instructors and other employees, 19; number of blind admitted since the opening, 66; average annual expenditure for five years,$57,000. A state industrial school was established in San Francisco in 1858, for children of the criminal class; the number of inmates Oct. 1, 1871, was 244, of whom 207 were boys and 37 girls. The state prison is at San Quentin, 12 m. from San Francisco. It contains 453 cells, each 7 ft. long, 4½ wide, and 7 high. In 1871 the number of officers and employees was 51; prisoners, 880, of whom 6 were females, 477 native born, and 403 foreigners. The prisoners are employed in cabinet-making, cooperage, brick-making, and harness-making. Instruction is given in the elementary branches. There is a hospital fund provided by the state, which is apportioned to the different counties and expended by the boards of supervisors for the support of the indigent sick; the expenditures from this fund for the two years 1870 and 1871 were $114,986.—Liberal provisions have been made for education. In 1851 the legislature, in compliance with a provision of the constitution, passed an act establishing a system of public schools. Under this system, outside of the principal cities and towns, but few of the schools were free; in 1864 three fourths of them were partially maintained by rate bills and tuition. In 1867 they were made entirely free. There is a superintendent of public instruction, elected for four years. By the act of 1867, the board of education consists of the governor, superintendent of public instruction, the principal of the state normal school, the superintendents of public schools in the counties of San Francisco, Sacramento, Santa Clara, Alameda, Sonoma, and San Joaquin, and two professional teachers to be nominated by the superintendent of public instruction and approved by the board. The schools are open to all white children between the ages of 5 and 21 years. Separate schools are provided for negro and Indian children. Ten per cent. of each annual apportionment of the school fund is set apart as a district school library fund. A state teachers' institute is held annually in San Francisco, and county institutes are held in many of the counties. The school fund is composed of the proceeds of all lands that may be granted by the United States for the support of schools, the congressional grant of 500,000 acres to all new states, all escheated estates, and all percentages on the sale of state lands. The interest on these sums, together with the rents of unsold lands, is devoted to educational purposes. The school revenue is augmented by half the proceeds of the poll tax and by a tax of 10 cents on every$100 of taxable property throughout the state. There is also a county tax for school purposes, and a district tax may be levied for buildings. According to the census of 1870, the whole number of persons between 5 and 18 years of age was 137,129, of whom 91,176 were attending school. The number of schools of all classes was: public, 1,342, with 767 male and 1,116 female teachers, and 39,772 male and 35,775 female pupils; classical, professional, and technical, 41, with 204 male and 72 female teachers, and 3,225 male and 1,276 female pupils; and other private, parochial, and charity schools, 167, with 98 male and 205 female teachers, and 2,305 male and 3,324 female pupils. The total annual income for schools was $2,946,308, including$59,057 from endowment, $1,669,464 from taxation and public funds, and$1,217,787 from other sources, including tuition. The total expenditures for school purposes in 1871 amounted to $1,713,430, of which$1,103,125 was for teachers' wages. The total valuation of school property was $3,362,580. There were 449 colored children and 140 Indians attending public schools, and 58 colored children and 14 Indians attending private schools. Little has been done by the public authorities for the instruction of the Chinese; but there are mission schools in which adults as well as children are taught in San Francisco, Stockton, Sacramento, and Marysville. Provision is made for the enumeration and instruction of Indian children who are under the guardianship of whites. The state normal school for the education and training of teachers was established in San Francisco in 1862, and in 1871 removed to San José. At the close of that year there were 5 instructors and 168 students, of whom 140 were females. The whole number of graduates is 253. The course of instruction is two years. The university of California was formally opened at Oakland Sept. 23, 1869. Its permanent site will be at Berkeley, 4 m. N. of Oakland, where a tract of 160 acres of land has been transferred to it by the college of California, which has been merged in the university. The university is under the control of a board of 22 regents, of which the governor, lieutenant governor, state superintendent of public instruction, speaker of the assembly, president of the state agricultural society, and president of the mechanics' institute of San Francisco are ex officio members. Colleges of agriculture, of mechanic arts, of mines, of civil engineering, of letters, and of medicine have been organized. A bureau of military instruction has been established, and there is a preparatory department connected with the university. In each of the colleges the full course is four years, with three terms in each year. Young women are admitted on the same terms with young men. Tuition is free in the university proper, but not in the preparatory department. At the beginning of the third scholastic year, September, 1871, there were 147 students, as follows: in the college of arts, 75; letters, 28; optional courses, 20; special courses, 24. During the year 26 young women were admitted to the university and 258 students to the preparatory department. The medical department had 8 professors, and the colleges of arts and letters 10. The university already possesses excellent apparatus valued at over$30,000, and a library of about 3,000 volumes. Five scholarships of the annual value of $300 have been established by the legislature. The expenditures from Dec. 12, 1,869, to Jan. 1, 1872, amounted to$270,304. The university is entitled to the 150,000 acres of land given by congress to the state for an agricultural college. There are 18 separate incorporated colleges in the state, of which the most important are the college of St. Augustine (Episcopal), at Benicia, having in 1871 7 instructors, 90 students, and a library of 11,000 volumes; St. Ignatius college (Roman Catholic), in San Francisco, with 19 instructors and 559 students; Santa Clara college (Catholic), at Santa Clara, with 17 instructors, 225 students, and a library of 12,000 volumes; the university of the Pacific (Methodist), at Santa Clara, with 6 instructors, 55 male and 60 female students, and a library of 2,000 volumes; the Pacific Methodist college, at Vacaville, with 7 instructors and 119 male and 88 female students; Hesperian college (Christian), at Woodland, with 7 instructors and 37 male and 82 female students; and the Franciscan college (Catholic), at Santa Barbara, with 6 instructors, 92 students, and a library of 2,000 volumes. So far as heard from, these 18 institutions had in 1871 90 instructors, 1,682 students, of whom 308 were females, and 19,150 volumes in their libraries. There are three theological seminaries: that of the college of St. Augustine (Episcopal), and the theological seminary (Presbyterian), in San Francisco, and the Pacific theological seminary (Congregational), at Oakland. In 1871 they had 8 instructors, endowments aggregating $50,000, and 1,500 volumes in their libraries. The Toland medical college, in San Francisco, was organized in 1864, and in 1871 had 14 professors. There are three institutions for the superior instruction of females only: the young ladies' seminary at Benicia, the female college of the Pacific at Oakland, and the college of Notre Dame at San José. These institutions in 1871 had 46 instructors, 720 students, and libraries containing 5,000 volumes. There are two commercial and business colleges in San Francisco, and one at San José.—The total number of libraries reported by the census of 1870 was 1,617, with 474,299 volumes. Of these, 873, containing 316,674 volumes, were private, and 744, with 159,625 volumes, other than private; among the latter were 288 school and college libraries, with 29,113 volumes; 268 Sunday school, 63,940; 96 church, 18,180; and 31 circulating, 22,475. The principal libraries are those of the mercantile association of San Francisco, 30,000 volumes; of the odd fellows' association, 17,000; of the mechanics' institute, 12,000; of the What Cheer house, 5,000; of the Verein association, 4,500; the state library in Sacramento, 26,000; and the collection of the Sacramento library association. The total number of newspapers and periodicals in 1870 was 201, having an aggregate circulation of 491,903, and issuing 47,472,756 copies annually. Of these, 33 were daily, with a circulation of 94,100; 4 tri-weekly, circulation 9,500; 4 semi-weekly, circulation 2,700; 140 weekly, circulation 298,603; 1 semi-monthly, circulation 300; 17 monthly, circulation 82,200; 2 quarterly, circulation 4,500; and 14 were published in foreign languages: French 2, German 5, Spanish 4, Italian 2, and Russian 1.—The total number of religious organizations was 643, having 532 edifices, with 195,558 sittings, and property valued at$7,404,235. Included in these were 7 Chinese organizations having 5 edifices, with sittings for 2,600 persons, and property valued at $22,500; and 2 Greek organizations, with property valued at$6,000. The principal denominations were:

 DENOMINATIONS. Organizations. Sittings. Property. Baptist 60 16,775 $271,600 Christian 30 6,380 34,160 Congregational 40 11,509 282,400 Episcopal 45 13,095 398,200 Jewish 7 3,610 314,600 Methodist 184 43,034 677,625 Presbyterian 79 21,798 453,650 Roman Catholic 160 66,640 4,692,200 The Chinese are nearly all Buddhists. A few of the Indians have been Christianized, but most of them are destitute of any creed beyond a vague belief in the Great Spirit.—The name California is first found in the writings of Bernal Diaz del Castillo, an officer who served under Cortes in the conquest of Mexico, and by him limited to a single bay on the coast. In some of the early English maps California is called New Albion, having been so named by Sir Francis Drake, who touched on the coast in 1578, during one of his buccaneering expeditions. A century later, being then supposed to be insular, it was called Islas Carolines, in honor of Charles II. of Spain; but subsequently the original name was revived and universally adopted. Lower or Old California was discovered as early as 1534 by Ximenes, a Spanish explorer; but the first settlements were made much later, in 1683, by the Jesuit missionaries. The precise date of the discovery of New or Upper California is uncertain; but it was subsequent to that of Old California, and the first mission (San Diego) was founded as late as 1768. Other missions and presidios were established in the following years, and the government of the country, both spiritual and temporal, was intrusted to certain monks of the order of St. Francis. The bay of San Francisco was discovered about 1770, and a mission was established there in 1776. In 1803, according to Humboldt, 18 missions had been established, with 15,562 converts. Three more missions were subsequently established, and in 1831 the entire population is stated by Forbes in his “History of Upper California” at 23,025 (exclusive of unconverted Indians), of whom 18,683 were Indian converts. The Spanish power in California was overthrown by the Mexican revolution in 1822, and though the government of that country changed frequently, all administrations agreed in the policy of secularizing the government of California, and the fathers were finally stripped of their possessions and their former dignity and influence. The settlement of the country began to advance, particularly from the immigration of foreigners, the people of the United States being largely represented. During the years 1843, '44, '45, and '46 many thousands of emigrants from the United States settled in California. After the declaration of war between Mexico and the United States the struggle for the mastery in California terminated favorably to the latter early in January, 1847. The treaty of peace soon followed, by which California and certain other territory were ceded to the United States for the sum of$15,000,000. At the close of hostilities the white population was estimated at 12,000 to 15,000. In the month of February, 1848, gold was discovered on the property of Col. Sutter, near the town of Coloma in El Dorado co. The news spread rapidly, and it was soon found that gold was widely distributed throughout the state. People flocked in from Mexico, from South America, from the Atlantic states, from Europe, and from China. The emigration was altogether unparalleled. In a very short time California contained a mixed population of nearly a quarter of a million of energetic, daring, reckless, and dangerous people. A substantial government became necessary. Gen. Riley, the military governor of the territory, called a convention of delegates, to meet at Monterey, Sept. 1, 1849, to frame a state constitution. The convention met, and after about six weeks' consideration agreed on a constitution, which was submitted to the people, by whom it was adopted; and on Sept. 9, 1850, California was admitted into the Union. Gambling became almost a universal passion among the Californians. Whole squares were devoted exclusively to it in San Francisco. Real estate and prices of all kinds rose enormously, and rapid fortunes were made by speculators in houses and lots. Among the emigrants to California were a large number of outlaws from all parts of the world, but mainly from Australia and the United States. In the earlier history of gold digging there were no efficient means for a proper administration of justice. Lynch law was resorted to in many parts of the country, and finally vigilance committees were established in the chief towns, by whom thieves and murderers were arrested, summarily tried, and if convicted, hanged. The first vigilance committee in San Francisco was formed in 1851. That of 1856 had its constitution and an executive committee, to whose supervision the general management was intrusted, and which performed its functions with the utmost quietness and dignity. One of the provisions of the constitution was, that no person brought before the committee should be punished without a fair trial and conviction. The committee provided itself with arms and ammunition, drilled its forces, fortified its headquarters, and constructed cells for prisoners and apartments for its various necessities. It arrested and tried rogues and dangerous men, some of whom were hanged, some transported, and others acquitted. The committee successfully resisted the efforts of the state authorities for its suppression, and practically held supreme power. After a short reign the committee surrendered its power in the latter part of 1856, having during its extraordinary administration of public affairs tried and disposed of some 30 cases brought before them; four of their prisoners were executed, one committed suicide while his case was under deliberation, and most of the others were banished from the state.

In its earlier history San Francisco was six times nearly destroyed by fire. Sacramento and other large towns have also suffered in the same way. The total loss by fire in San Francisco alone has been estimated at $20,000,000. During the autumn and early winter of 1861 California was visited by a disastrous flood which destroyed property estimated at$10,000,000. One of the most violent and destructive earthquakes known in California occurred in the latter part of March, 1872, in Tulare and Inyo counties. The first and most violent shock was felt early on the morning of the 26th, and was followed by numerous minor shocks extending over several days. Large fissures in the ground and upheavals of earth extended for miles, causing great destruction of life and property. About 30 persons were killed and 100 wounded. The line of the shock extended from Red Bluff in Tehama co. as far S. as Visalia in Tulare co., where was the centre of the greatest violence. It followed the trend of the Sierra Nevada, reaching an elevation of from 3,000 to 4,000 ft. The area in commotion was about 500 m. long by 100 broad, but the shock was felt in San Francisco and other parts of the state. During the civil war no troops were furnished by California; this was due to the isolated position of the state, there being at that time no railroad communication with the east.—See “The Resources of California,” by J. S. Hittel (San Francisco, 1863); “Geological Survey of California,” by J. D. Whitney (vol. i., 1865); “History of California,” by Franklin Tuthill (1866); Californien: über dessen Bevölkerung und gesellschaftliche Zustände, by K. Rühl (New York, 1867); “The Natural Wealth of California,” by Titus Fey Cronise (San Francisco, 1868); “Progress of the Geological Survey, 1870-'71,” by J. D. Whitney; “California: A Book for Travellers and Settlers,” by Charles Nordhoff (New York, 1873).