The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Fisheries
FISHERIES, the business of catching fish, and the localities frequented by the kinds of fish that are objects of capture, such as the cod, herring, mackerel, and salmon. The whale fishery and the seal fishery are terms employed to designate the pursuit of the whale and the seal, though those animals are not fishes. (See Whale Fishery, and Seal Fishery.)—Among the ancients, fisheries were carried on extensively from a very early period, and formed a valuable branch of industry. Byzantium (the modern Constantinople), and Sinope on the Black sea, were famous for their lucrative fisheries. From Suetonius we learn that the murœna or lamprey, the favorite fish of the Romans, was caught in the greatest abundance in the sea around Sicily, and in the Carpathian sea between Crete and Rhodes. In the 3d century of our era the fishermen of the Mediterranean pursued their prey not only on the coasts, but in the open sea, making long voyages, and even passing the pillars of Hercules. The fisheries of Egypt were especially celebrated for their productiveness, but they were all inland, in lakes, canals, and the river Nile. The revenues arising from the fisheries of Lake Mœris were given to the queen of Egypt for pin money, and are said to have amounted to nearly $500,000 annually.—The earliest mention of the herring fishery that has reached us dates from A. D. 709. The cod fishery began to be regulated by legislation in western Europe toward the end of the 9th century. From an ordinance of Charles VI. in 1415 it appears that the mackerel fishery of France at that period was very extensive, and that the fish were sold at an extremely low rate in the markets of Paris. The development of the fisheries during the middle ages was greatly promoted by the demand for fish created by the fasts of the church. But the discovery, at the end of the 15th century, of Newfoundland and its fisheries, which to this day surpass all others in magnitude and value, gave the greatest impulse to the business. The cod, mackerel, and herring are the chief objects of pursuit, and their range is not limited to the neighborhood of Newfoundland, but they are caught in vast numbers on the coast of New England, in all the bays and inlets of the British maritime possessions, and on the coast of Labrador. The French were the first Europeans who engaged in the American cod fishery. They visited Newfoundland as early as 1504. In 1508 Thomas Aubert made a fishing voyage from Dieppe to the gulf of St. Lawrence, and after that the Newfoundland fisheries increased so rapidly that in 1517 they gave employment to 50 vessels from different nations, chiefly, however, from France. In 1577 there were 150 French vessels engaged in the business, which they pursued with great success. A few years later the government of Henry IV. took active measures to protect and encourage the cod fishery. Early in the 17th century, however, the business began to decline, so that in 1645 the number of French vessels employed in it was 50 less than in 1577. At this period began those contests between the French and English about the sovereignty of the fishing grounds, which continued more than a century. After the treaty of Ryswick in 1697, the French claimed the exclusive ownership of the American fisheries east of the Kennebec river in Maine, except on the W. coast of Newfoundland, where, by a specific stipulation of the treaty, the English were permitted to fish. By the treaty of peace of 1713, however, the French fishermen were prohibited from coming within 30 leagues of the coast of Nova Scotia, but they were granted the privilege of fishing on the E. coast of Newfoundland, from Cape Bonavista to the northern point, thence along the western shores as far as Point Riche. Notwithstanding the restrictions of this treaty, the French continued to pursue the fisheries with energy and success. They settled on the island of Cape Breton, where they built the town and fortress of Louisburg, at an expense of 30,000,000 livres, which became the great rendezvous of their fishermen. In 1721 their fleet of fishing vessels is said to have increased to 400 sail, a greater number than at any former period. In 1744 they had 564 vessels, manned by 27,500 men, and producing 1,441,500 quintals of fish, valued at $4,500,000. After the fall of Louisburg in 1745 the fleet declined to about 100 sail. By the treaty of Paris in 1763 it was agreed that the French should have the liberty of fishing and drying fish on a part of the coasts of Newfoundland, and of fishing in the gulf of St. Lawrence at the distance of three leagues and upward from the shore, and on the coasts of Cape Breton at the distance of 15 leagues from the shore. The little islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon near the S. coast of Newfoundland were ceded to France to serve as shelter for the French fishermen. A few years later, in 1768, the number of French vessels at Newfoundland had increased to 259. By the treaty of peace in 1783 the right of the French to Miquelon and St. Pierre was confirmed, but their right to fish on the E. coast of Newfoundland between Cape Bonavista and Cape St. John was abandoned, and extended on the W. coast from Point Riche to Cape Ray. The French revolution was disastrous to the fisheries, and in 1792 fewer than 3,400 Frenchmen were engaged in the North American seas. During the reign of Napoleon they continued to languish, and the fishermen met with severe losses from the British cruisers. After the peace of 1815 the business rapidly increased, and from 1835 to 1839 the cod fishery employed an average of 416 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 53,456; from 1842 to 1847, 389 vessels of 49,165 tons, of which 21,195 tons were employed on the coast of Newfoundland, 657 at St. Pierre and Miquelon, 5,816 on the Grand bank, 13,703 on the same without drying, and 7,794 at Iceland. From 1841 to 1850 the number of men averaged 11,500; in 1852 the number of vessels was 450, and of men 14,000; in 1858, 492 vessels of 77,150 tons and 15,280 men; value of product, $3,500,000. In 1869, 676 vessels, manned by 14,149 men, produced about 670,000 quintals of cod and its products. In 1870, 188 vessels and 7,000 men were employed in the Newfoundland fishery, and 299 vessels, with 5,000 men, in the Iceland fishery. The protection and encouragement of this great branch of national industry has from its commencement been sedulously attended to by the French government. Bounties to a large amount are granted to the fishermen. At present (1874), under a law passed in 1851, the bounties to the cod fisheries are as follows: for each man of the crew of a vessel employed on the coast of Newfoundland or Iceland, 50 francs; for each metric quintal (220½ lbs.) of dry codfish, 20, 16, or 12 francs, according to the country to which it is shipped, the highest bounty being given on codfish shipped to the French colonies in America, India, and the W. coast of Africa. The bounty paid from 1841 to 1850 averaged $780,000 a year; in 1858 it amounted to $735,000, and in 1869 to $430,000. The French herring fishery is of great importance, and is carried on chiefly from Boulogne, Fécamp, Dieppe, Saint-Valery-en-Caux, Gravelines, Courseulles, and Berck. The following table exhibits the number of vessels engaged, with the tonnage and men, and the quantity of herring taken, during the most recent period of six years for which statistics are attainable:
Another valuable French fishery is that of sardines, which is carried on both in the Mediterranean and on the coasts of Brittany. The total value of the French fisheries in 1866 was $10,965,707, viz.: cod, $2,725,329; sardines, $1,369,787; herring, $1,357,437; mackerel, $490,575; oysters, $307,535; shrimps and other crustacea, $294,473; mussels, $268,709; sea shells, $191,002; the rest miscellaneous. In 1871 the whole number of vessels and boats engaged in the fisheries of all kinds was 18,407, having an aggregate tonnage of 142,774, and employing 110,486 hands, including 60,635 men and 39,361 women and children engaged in the coast fisheries. The value of the catch was $13,978,451; in 1870, $11,975,460. The imports of products of the sea in 1868 were valued at $8,034,900, of which $7,606,000 were for consumption; in 1869, $8,817,000, of which $8,479,000 were for consumption. Of these amounts about half are cod and cod oil, the product of the national fisheries. The other principal items in 1869 were fresh-water fish to the value of $525,000; herring, $252,000; stockfish, $84,000; other fish, fresh, dry, salted, or smoked, $478,000; fish, pickled or preserved in oil, $180,000; lobsters, $169,000; oysters, $497,000; cod and mackerel roes, $948,000; whale and other fish oil, $510,000; whalebone, $289,000; crude coral, $428,000: fine pearls, $245,000. The exports in 1868 amounted to $4,675,000, of which $4,512,000 were the product of the domestic fisheries; in 1869, to $4,166,000, of which $3,892,600 were domestic. In the latter year the chief items were 54,415 quintals of salted cod, valued at $321,000; 20,922,946 lbs. of sardines, worth $2,853,000; and 1,108,507 lbs. of other fish, pickled or preserved in oil, valued at $305,000.—Spain participated in the fishery excitement following the discovery of America, and vessels from that nation visited Newfoundland as early as 1517. Sixty years later 100 vessels were employed in the fishery, but the number rapidly declined, and about the middle of the 17th century the connection of Spain with the American fisheries appears to have ceased. Portuguese vessels also early visited the fishing grounds, the number employed in 1577 being estimated at 50, but the distant fishery was soon abandoned. Spain was noted from the 8th to the 16th century for the boldness of her fishermen engaged in the deep-sea fisheries, which were pursued chiefly from the Basque provinces. The shore fisheries still continue, and flourish mainly on the coasts of the bay of Biscay. In 1866 the number of vessels and boats registered for the fishery was 12,127, with an aggregate tonnage of 42,026; number engaged, 10,348; men, 39,440; fish caught, 148,795,295 lbs.; value, $3,330,094: in 1867, registered, 12,596 vessels of 43,072 tons; engaged, 10,216; men, 37,558; fish caught, 106,609,767 lbs.; value, $2,573,341.—The English visited Iceland for cod before 1415, and the fisheries at that island were prosecuted as late as 1580 or 1590. Sebastian Cabot, returning from his voyage of discovery in 1498, first called their attention to the American fisheries. The first voyages in quest of fish, however, of which we have any account, were in 1517. In 1522, 40 or 50 houses for the accommodation of fishermen were built in Newfoundland, though no permanent settlement was effected till about a century later. In 1548 and 1563 acts were passed to encourage the fisheries, and at the beginning of the 17th century it is estimated that 200 English vessels annually visited Newfoundland, employing in catching and curing the fish not fewer than 10,000 men and boys. In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold explored the coast of New England, and, catching cod near the southern cape of Massachusetts, gave it the name it bears. Capt. John Smith followed in 1614, and caught a considerable quantity of fish on the coast of Maine. From this time the fisheries on the coast of New England began to be prosecuted with vigor. In 1616 full fares were taken by eight English ships. In 1620 the island of Monhegan off the coast of Maine had become a noted fishing station. In 1622 profitable fishing voyages to New England were made by 35 English ships, and the number employed at Newfoundland was 400, which, however, in a few years decreased to 150 sail, partly from the diminished consumption of fish in Europe owing to the growth of Protestantism, and partly from the increase of the coast fishery by the settlers on Newfoundland. Notwithstanding that measures were taken by the government to promote the fisheries, the number of fishing vessels continued to decline, till in 1670 only 80 were sent out. Several measures were accordingly adopted by the English government to prevent permanent settlement in Newfoundland, and consequent competition of boat fishermen from shore. These measures increased the number of fishing vessels, which in 1674 was 270, employing 10,800 men. Toward the end of the century settlers were again allowed to dwell in Newfoundland, but restrictions were imposed on the right to hold land. In 1701 the number of vessels employed was 121, with an aggregate tonnage of 7,991; number of boats, 993; fishermen, 2,727; curers (including women and children), 3,581; product, 216,320 quintals of fish and 3,798 hogsheads of oil. The boat fishery of the colonists again supplanted the fishery in vessels of large size, and to encourage the home merchants parliament in 1775 allowed a bounty of £40 to each of the first 25 ships, £20 to the next 100, and £10 to the second 100, that should make fares of fish before the middle of July and return to the fishing grounds for a second lading. In 1774 the whole number of British subjects employed in the Newfoundland fisheries was 23,652, and the product amounted to 739,877 quintals. The English fisheries were exceedingly prosperous between 1795 and 1815. In 1814, 1,200,000 quintals offish were produced, worth $12,000,000. After this period the fishery soon fell entirely into the hands of the colonists, and the distant fishery from England ceased.—The home fisheries of the British islands are of great extent and importance, the herring fishery of Scotland holding the first place. Cod, hake, and ling are also extensively taken in Scotland. Along the English coast are found cod, herring, mackerel, turbot, lobsters, oysters, &c., which are taken in large quantities fresh to the London market. The pilchard fishery is carried on along the shores of Cornwall and Devonshire, employing during the season from 2,500 to 3,000 fishermen, and producing an average of 25,000 hogsheads of pilchards annually. In Ireland the fisheries have fallen off since the famine, the people being too poor to procure the necessary boats and outfits. In 1846 the number of vessels and boats engaged in fishing was 19,883, with 113,073 men; in 1856, 11,096, with 48,774 men 5 in 1866, 9,444, with 40,663 men; in 1868, 9,184, with 39,339 men; and in 1872, 7,914, with 31,311 men. In the last named year 1,113 of the vessels, with 5,438 men, were solely engaged in fishing; 685, with 3,126 men, principally; and 6,116, with 22,747 men, only partially. The number of those only partially engaged is probably too large by some 8,000, and they are for the most part employed only a few days in the year. The herring and mackerel fishery is perhaps the most important on the Irish coast, and is largely participated in by Cornish, Manx, and Scotch boats. The annual catch is valued at about £450,000. From Dublin to Waterford trawling is extensively carried on to supply the Dublin market. Herrings are caught here, and off Arklow and Wexford are the principal oyster banks. From Cork to Cape Clear the mackerel is chiefly taken, Kinsale being the headquarters of that fishery, while from Ardglass to Dublin is the principal herring fishery. The value of the oysters annually taken is about £50,000. The salmon fisheries of the rivers of Great Britain and Ireland are very productive; they are regulated by law, and are in general private property. The estimated value of the catch of England and Wales has increased within a few years from £20,000 or £30,000 to £100,000; the Irish yield is about £400,000 a year, and that of the Scotch salmon fisheries about £300,000. In 1869 there were 5,113 persons employed in the salmon fishery of England and Wales; in 1870, 4,593; in 1871, 5,437; in 1872, 5,217, of whom 2,907 were net fishermen and 2,310 anglers. The number of vessels fitted out for the fishery of cod, &c., in Scotland in 1872 was 155, of 6,400 tons and 1,624 men; for the herring fishery, 95 vessels, of 2,976 tons and 434 men. The number of decked and undecked boats engaged in the shore-curing fisheries was 15,232, with an aggregate tonnage of 106,464, employing 46,178 fishermen and boys, 863 curers, and 41,930 (estimated) other persons. The value of boats was £381,338; of nets, £521,327; of lines, £94,628; total value of equipments, £997,293. In 1869 there were registered at the several ports of the United Kingdom 42,960 fishing boats, with an aggregate tonnage of 242,179, giving employment to 152,779 men and 13,969 boys. Of these numbers 16,195 boats, with a tonnage of 127,013, employing 54,757 men and boys, belonged to England and Wales; 17,969 boats, 87,001 tons, and 73,179 men and boys, to Scotland; and 8,796 boats, 28,165 tons, and 38,812 men and boys, to Ireland. In 1872 the number registered was 40,546, with an aggregate tonnage of 261,761, viz. : England and Wales, 15,331 of 140,535 tons; Scotland, 16,765 of 92,595 tons; Ireland, 8,450 of 28,651 tons. Of the whole number, 5,284 of 145,387 tons were of the first class (15 tons and over), 25,452 of 102,392 tons of the second class (under 15 tons, not navigated by oars alone), and 9,810 of 14,002 tons of the third class (navigated by oars only). Besides the above, there were 375 boats of 5,047 tons registered at the Isle of Man, and 802 of 2,988 tons at the Channel islands. The following table exhibits the quantity of white herrings (salted in barrels) and of cod, ling, and hake cured in Great Britain at various periods, the returns after 1851 being confined to Scotland and the Isle of Man, and after 1868 to Scotland:
|Cod, Ling, and Hake.|
|Dried, cwt.|| Pickled, |
The chief seats of the herring fishery are Stornoway in the Hebrides, Peterhead and Fraserburgh in Aberdeenshire, and Wick. More than half of the cod, &c., are caught at the Shetland islands, and considerable quantities are taken at the Orkney islands and from Stornoway. The trade of the United Kingdom in fish and the products thereof, from 1868 to 1872, is shown in the following tables:
|YEARS.||Fish, cwt.||Value.|| Fish oil,
The fish oil is brought chiefly from British America and the United States; fresh fish from Holland and Norway; and cured or salted fish from British America, Norway, France, the United States, and Denmark.
|Value.|| Other fish,
Included in the fourth column for 1871 are 7,752 cwt. of salmon, valued at £43,926; 28,871 of cod, &c., £33,490; 23,667 bushels of oysters, £36,741; and 30,548 hogsheads of pilchards, £86,319. Of the herrings, 451,015 barrels were sent to Germany, and 72,162 to Italy. The other fish is exported chiefly to France, Italy (which receives nearly all the pilchards), Belgium, Spain, and the Canaries. In 1871, 447,300 gallons of oil, valued at £57,514, the produce of foreign and colonial fisheries, were exported.—In Italy, in 1869, 29,385 men (including about 4,000 engaged in the coral fishery) were returned as employed in fishing; in 1870, 30,848; but these numbers are believed to be below the truth. In the former year 8,346 men were engaged in the sea fishery, and the rest in the coast fishery. In fishing proper there were 11,219 boats of 37,733 tons, of which 9,817 of 25,414 tons were employed along the coast, 670 of 5,556 tons at sea, and 732 of 6,763 tons in foreign waters; in 1870 the number of boats was 11,129, with an aggregate tonnage of 38,554. The foreign waters visited are chiefly those of the Austrian coast (Istria and Dalmatia); a smaller number of vessels frequent the coasts of Corsica and Provence in France, and the rest are employed in the Grecian seas and along the shores of Algeria, Tunis, and Egypt. The richest Italian fisheries are in the Adriatic, especially near Chioggia and Venice, while the sea near Liguria is the least productive. The principal kinds taken are sardines and anchovies, particularly in the Mediterranean, sword fish in the seas of Sicily, especially near Catania, and cuttle fish near the Adriatic coast of S. Italy. The tunny fishery, however, is the most important. It is carried on, chiefly in Sardinia and Sicily, by means of large fixed nets or weirs, called tonnare, of which there are 48. In Sicily the average catch is 15,000 tunnies, worth about $400,000; the average product of Sardinia is 25,000 tunnies, of a somewhat smaller size than those of Sicily, besides a considerable quantity sold in boxes, of which the exact value is not known. About 2,500 persons are employed in catching and preparing them for market. The artificial preserves of the Venetian territory, known as valli da pesca, those at Comacchio and elsewhere in the province of Ferrara, and various salt lakes or marshes of Sardinia and the Neapolitan territory, where the fish are carefully fattened, yield an important product. There are 173 of these preserves on the Venetian coast, of which 63 are in the lagoon of Venice. They give employment to about 1,000 men, nearly all of whom belong to Chioggia, and produce annually nearly 6,000,000 lbs. of choice fish (eels, mullets, gold fish, &c.), worth about $325,000. Those of Comacchio produce an average of 2,650,000 lbs. annually, of which about 1,800,000, chiefly eels, are carefully prepared in that city, and exported to various parts of Italy, and to some extent to Germany and Austria, producing a revenue of about $150,000. The other important preserves of Ferrara are those of Mesola, which produce about 650,000 lbs. yearly, and those at the mouths of the Po. The principal Neapolitan lakes are Varano, which gives employment to 200 fishermen, and produces 5,500,000 lbs. of fish a year, and Lesina, Salso, and Salpi, which together employ 52 fishermen and produce 531,300 lbs.; others, whose exact product is unknown, employ 500 fishermen. The productive lakes and marshes of Sardinia are mostly in the S. and W. parts. The fish is consumed in the country, except a preparation of the roes of the mullet, which is sold to a considerable extent on the continent. Shell fish are cultivated in the gulf of Taranto, and oysters, mussels, &c., are shipped by rail to Naples and more distant points. At least 10,000 persons, including fishermen and workmen with their families, derive support from this source. The returns of the fisheries in the rivers and internal lakes of Italy are incomplete, but the principal ones employ 1,344 boats and 3,202 men, yielding about 2,500,000 lbs. of fish annually. The imports of fish for consumption in 1869 amounted to 564,000 cwt., valued at $3,500,000, of which 1,625 cwt. was the product of the national fishery, being a portion of the catch in foreign waters, the rest being sold directly to foreigners. Of the foreign imports 42,250 cwt. consisted of sardines, anchovies, &c. The exports were 36,900 cwt., valued at $279,500, of which 15,580 cwt. were the product of the national fishery and 21,320 cwt. of foreign fisheries. The foreign exports are chiefly from Austria, imported under a light duty and reëxported to South America and other countries. The imports in 1870 were 622,000 cwt., valued at $4,245,000; exports, 31,100 cwt., valued at $256,000. In Austria in 1867 there were 1,032 boats engaged in fishing, having an aggregate tonnage of 3,001, and employing 3,643 men.—Tunis has an important tunny fishery at Sidi Daud, 10 m. W. of Cape Bon. The season commences in April and ends about the middle of July, during which time about 200 men are employed. The tunny is either boiled and packed in olive oil, when it is known as scabeccio, or preserved in salt. The oil extracted from the heads, bones, and other refuse is much used by tanners and curriers. From 10,000 to 14,000 tunnies are taken in a good season. In 1871 the yield of scabeccio was 3,200 barrels and about 200,000 lbs. in tin cans, of salted tunny 8,000 barrels, and of oil 65,460 gallons, the whole being worth about $150,000. The demand for this fish is limited to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, the product of the Tunisian fishery being taken mostly to Italy and Malta. The tonnare of Ras Zibib and Ghademse island are no longer in operation. Tunis also produces 5,000 or 6,000 cwt. of dried polyps or octopods, a name under which certain species of cephalopods are known in the Levant and Greek markets, where they are imported for use in Lent, not being included by the eastern church in the prohibition against fish during seasons of religious abstinence. They are mostly taken first to Malta. The chief fishery is at the Kerkena islands. Portugal competes with Tunis for the possession of the Greek market. The lakes near the city of Tunis, especially Bizerta, containing various species, the most important of which are the gray mullet and the bream, supply the home market with fresh fish. The roes of the mullet, prepared as buttarga, and exported principally to Italy, are the chief source of revenue.—The Norwegian fisheries, extending along the entire W. and N. coasts of that country, including the adjacent islands, are the most productive in Europe. During the months of January, February, and March, the cod and herring visit in immense numbers the fiords which indent these shores. There is also a summer fishery for herring, when the best quality of fish is taken. The average annual product of herring is 1,000,000 barrels. The rivers abound in salmon, and large numbers of lobsters are sent to the London market. The exports of salmon and other fresh fish in 1871 amounted to about 76,000 cwt., of which 2,000 cwt. were salmon, and 70,000 cwt. mackerel. In that year 24 vessels, with a tonnage of 1,032 and 248 men, were fitted out for the walrus or sea-horse fishery at Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen, which brought in a catch valued at about $27,000; the shark fishery employed 28 vessels, with a tonnage of 895 and 173 men, and the product was of about the same value. In 1860, 276 vessels, 2,632 boats, and 13,786 men were engaged in the herring fishery, and 5,675 boats and 24,266 men in the cod fishery. In 1868 the exports of fishery products amounted to about $8,000,000; in 1869, $9,600,000; in 1870, $10,900,000, of which over $6,000,000 were the value of cod-fishery products, and over $4,500,000 of the herring fishery. The actual gain to the fishermen employed in 1868 was $4,760,000; in 1869, $4,600,000; in 1870, $4,930,000; in 1871, $5,530,000, of which $3,420,000 represent the cod fishery, $1,840,000 the herring fishery, and $270,000 the other fisheries. The chief markets are Spain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, and Holland, which receives the greater part of the cod-liver oil.—In Denmark, fishing is pursued to a considerable extent along the coasts. The cod is the principal fish, though flounders and herrings are also taken, and in smaller quantities salmon, porpoises, and oysters. In 1865, 337 vessels, with a tonnage of 5,330 and about 4,000 men, were employed. The principal fisheries, however, are at the dependencies of Greenland, the Faroe islands, and Iceland. Whale and seal oil is the chief item at Greenland, and codfish at the other points. Iceland in 1853 employed in the fisheries 25 decked boats and 3,481 open boats, with about 7,000 men; in 1870, 63 large decked boats and 3,092 open boats, with from 2 to 12 oars each. The large boats are employed generally in the shark fishery, which is carried on mostly on the N. side of the island; the smaller boats in the cod and herring fishery, though the latter is little pursued. Salmon are found in the rivers near Reykiavik and at the north of the island, and small quantities are exported. The exports of fishery products in 1864 were 64,352 quintals of fish and 8,962 barrels of roe and oil; in 1865, 29,307 quintals and 9,972 barrels; in 1866, 39,350 quintals and 9,722 barrels; in 1867, 83,619 quintals and 15,045 barrels; in 1868, 41,824 quintals and 9,335 barrels; in 1869, 56,865 quintals and 8,721 barrels. The exports of an average year are 50,789 quintals of salt fish, 2,136 of dried fish, 1,188 barrels of salt roe, and 9,105 of liver oil (chiefly shark), valued at $290,108. The total imports into Denmark in 1870 were: salt herrings, 11,829,126 lbs.; other fish, 3,427,128 lbs.; in 1871, herrings, 19,104,738 lbs.; other fish, 5,494,110 lbs. The exports in 1870 were: fresh fish, 2,090,709 lbs.; herrings, &c., salted, 5,928,580 lbs.; in 1871, fresh fish, 2,188,165 lbs.; herrings, &c., 13,553,236 lbs.—Among other European nations, the Dutch for several centuries took the lead in the fisheries, and the herring fishery was long a chief source of their wealth. It has, however, much declined. In 1867 Holland employed in the deep-sea fisheries 89 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 27,650; number of men in vessels and boats, 11,830. The value of the catch in 1866 was: herrings, $665,668; cod, ling, whiting, &c., $2,328,920; anchovies, $600,500; total, $3,595,088. The imports in 1871 were 14,090 tons of salt herring and 50,600 quintals of cod; exports, 67,110 tons of salt herring, 84,241,000 smoked herrings, 23,680 quintals of salt cod, 80,600 of dried cod, and 6,850,800 lbs. of fresh sea fish. The number of fishing boats employed in Belgium in 1871 was 263 of 8,963 tons, employing 1,623 men; the value of imports for consumption was $1,472,600. The annual value of the catch is about $500,000, of which about $200,000 are the product of the cod fishery.—The principal maritime fisheries of Russia in Europe are: the Caspian sea, which produces immense quantities of sturgeon, seals, &c.; the Black sea and sea of Azov, yielding the herring, tunny, salmon, sea trout, and anchovies; and the Baltic, furnishing cod, halibut, salmon, lampreys, &c. The White sea, abounding in herring, cod, and halibut, furnishes almost the sole support of the inhabitants along its coast. The river fisheries are important, the Volga being the most productive, abounding in sturgeon, and supplying large quantities of caviare. Lakes Ladoga, Onega, and Ilmen, and White lake, contain valuable fisheries. The product of all these sources has been estimated at $11,500,000, of which about one half is the value of the sea fisheries. The coasts of Asiatic Russia swarm with fish, but the fisheries are undeveloped.—The waters of China abound in fish, and it is estimated that one tenth of the people of that empire derive their food from the water. The coasts are crowded with enterprising and industrious fishermen, and besides the net and the hook, a great variety of expedients are resorted to. In the eastern provinces cormorants are trained to catch fish, which they bring to their master, who from his boat oversees 12 or 15 birds at the same time.—The great sea fisheries of the United States are mostly carried on from New England. They date from the earliest settlement of the country, it being probable that among the motives that led to the colonization of Massachusetts was the hope of profit from the fisheries on the coast, which Smith, Archer, Brereton, and other writers of the day represented as surpassing even those of Newfoundland. Very soon after their arrival at Plymouth the pilgrims engaged in the fisheries. In 1624 they sent to England a ship laden with fish, and in the next year two others with fish and furs. In 1628 they were selling fish to the Dutch at New Amsterdam. About 1670 the profits of the mackerel, bass, and herring fisheries at Cape Cod, which appear to have been considered public property, and to have been leased for the general benefit, were granted to found a free school, which was opened in 1671. From Boston fish began to be exported as early as 1633. In 1639 the general court of Massachusetts passed an act to encourage the fisheries, which exempted fishing vessels and all property connected with them from taxes and duties for seven years, and relieved fishermen during the fishing season and ship builders from military duty. At the close of the 17th century the merchants of Massachusetts exported annually about 100,000 quintals of codfish, worth $400,000, to Portugal, Spain, and Italy. In 1731 the fisheries of the colony employed 5,000 or 6,000 men. Ten years later the number of fishing vessels belonging to Massachusetts was 400, besides as many shallops and undecked boats. The annual produce of the cod fishery was about 230,000 quintals, of which $700,000 worth was exported. At the outbreak of the revolutionary contest the fishing towns were rich and populous. Marblehead was second only to Boston in population and property. In 1775, in the hope of starving New England into submission, the British parliament passed an act to deprive the colonies of the right of fishing on the banks of Newfoundland. The breaking out of hostilities which soon followed nearly destroyed the fisheries for a time, and the fishermen of New England turned their attention principally to privateering, though many enlisted in the army. In the negotiation of the treaty of peace in 1783, the right of the Americans to a share in the fisheries was secured by the firmness of John Adams, it being agreed “that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the gulf of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish; and also, that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use, and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks of all other of his Britannic majesty's dominions in America.” The British government, however, to check the growth of the fisheries of the United States, and to encourage those of the colonies, by an order in council of July, 1783, prohibited the importation of American fish into the British West Indies, which had been one of the best markets for the New England trade. The federal government early recognized the importance of the fisheries, and from time to time granted bounties for their encouragement, and imposed protective duties upon the importation of foreign-caught fish. The first act was passed in 1789, which granted a bounty of 5 cents per quintal on dried and 5 cents per barrel on pickled fish exported, in lieu of a drawback of the duties on imported salt used in the cure, and imposed a duty of 50 cents per quintal on imported fish. In 1790 the bounties were doubled. By the act of Feb. 16, 1792, the bounty on dried fish was discontinued, and a specific allowance was made to vessels employed exclusively in the cod fishery at sea for four months between the last day of February and the last day of November: to vessels of between 20 and 30 tons, $1 50 per ton annually; and to those of more than 30 tons, $2 50 per ton; but the annual allowance to any vessel was limited to $170. Three eighths of the bounty was given to the owners, and the remaining five eighths was to be divided among the fishermen. To boats of between 5 and 20 tons, $1 per ton, to be divided among the fishermen, was allowed annually, provided they had brought in 12 quintals of cured fish per ton during the season. The act of May 2, 1792, fixed the allowance on pickled fish at 8 cents a barrel, and increased the bounties on vessels 20 per cent., after Jan. 1, 1793. In 1797 an act was passed, which increased the bounty on pickled fish to 12 cents a barrel, and further raised the allowances to vessels 331⁄8 per cent., after Jan. 1, 1798. An act of 1799 increased the bounty on pickled fish to 30 cents a barrel. In 1807 all bounties were abolished. The act of 1813, similar in its provisions to those mentioned above, revived the bounty, and fixed the allowance to vessels of from 5 to 20 tons at $1 60 per ton; to those of from 20 to 30 tons, at $2 40; to those of more than 30 tons, at $4; and on pickled fish, at 20 cents a barrel; but no vessel was to receive over $272. The law was modified in 1819, and allowances were granted to vessels of from 5 to 30 tons of $3 50 per ton; to those of more than 30 tons, $4 per ton, and if having a crew of 10 men, and employed 3½ months but less than 4 months, $3 50 per ton; no vessel to receive more than $360. In 1846 the bounty on pickled fish was discontinued, and a drawback of the duties on imported salt used in the cure was substituted. The bounties to vessels were abolished by the act of July 28, 1866, but the duties on foreign salt used in curing fish were remitted. An act of 1817 required the master and three fourths of the crew to be citizens of the United States, to entitle the vessel to bounty; but this act was repealed, except as to the master, in 1864. By an act of 1789, vessels of 20 tons and upward destined for the fishery were required to be enrolled, and they as well as registered vessels might be licensed for one year, which exempted them from the necessity of entering and clearing during that period. Vessels of from 5 to 20 tons were required to be licensed. The act of 1793 required vessels of 20 tons and upward to be enrolled and licensed, and those of less than 20 tons to be licensed. In 1828 an act was passed requiring a special license for vessels employed in the mackerel fishery; and in 1836 such vessels were given the privilege of engaging in the cod or other fishery, but they were not entitled to the bounty. During the war with England in 1812-'15 the British cruisers kept the fishermen from the distant fishing grounds. Many of them entered the navy, and the frigate Constitution was chiefly manned by them, while great numbers engaged in privateering. In the negotiations for peace the British endeavored in vain to procure from the United States a relinquishment of their right to the fishing grounds, and maintained, after peace was concluded, that the state of hostilities had abrogated the concession of rights made in 1783. Discussions ensued between the two governments, which resulted in 1818 in a convention, by which it was agreed that the Americans should have the liberty of taking fish on the S. coast of Newfoundland between Cape Ray and the Rameau islands; from Cape Ray to the Quirpon islands; on the shores of the Magdalen islands; and also on the S. coast of Labrador from Mount Joly to and through the strait of Belle Isle, and thence northward indefinitely along the coast. The United States on their part renounced formally the right of fishing on or within three marine miles of the British dominions in America not included in the above specified limits. In the summer of 1852 serious troubles broke out between the American fishermen and the British authorities, who claimed the right to exclude the former from the bays and inlets of the British possessions. The dispute was temporarily settled by mutual concessions, and in 1854 a reciprocity treaty was agreed upon by the two countries, containing the following stipulations concerning the fisheries, in addition to those contained in the convention of 1818: “The inhabitants of the United States shall have, in common with the subjects of her Britannic majesty, the liberty to take fish of every kind except shell fish on the sea coasts and shores, and in the bays, harbors, and creeks of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward island, and of the several islands thereunto adjacent, without being restricted to any distance from the shore, with permission to land upon the coasts and shores of those colonies, and the islands thereof, and also upon the Magdalen islands, for the purpose of drying their nets and curing their fish.” It was specified that the liberty thus granted should apply solely to sea fisheries, and not to salmon, shad, or other river fisheries; and that the fishermen should not interfere with the rights of private property, or trespass on parts of the shore occupied by British fishermen. Similar rights, with similar reservations, were granted to British fishermen on the E. coast of the United States N. of lat. 36°. This treaty was terminated March 17, 1866, by virtue of notice given by the United States, March 17, 1865, pursuant to one of its provisions. In 1870 difficulties again arose between the United States and Great Britain respecting the fisheries, in consequence of certain unfriendly acts of the provincial authorities, and in 1871 the stipulations of the treaty of 1854 given above were revived by the treaty of Washington, which also provided that “fish oil and fish of all kinds, except fish of the inland lakes and of the rivers falling into them, and except fish preserved in oil, being the produce of the fisheries of the United States, or of the Dominion of Canada, or of Prince Edward island, shall be admitted into each country, respectively, free of duty.” The rights of British subjects on the coast of the United States were, however, restricted to that portion N. of the 39th parallel. The necessary laws having been passed by the several countries, these provisions went into operation July 1, 1873, to remain in force for the period of ten years thereafter, and further until the expiration of two years after the United States or Great Britain shall have given notice to terminate them. It was provided that, with the consent of the United States and Great Britain, these stipulations might extend to Newfoundland, and a colonial act was passed March 28, 1874, to carry them into effect.—Mackerel were early caught by the New England colonists, and the fishery soon assumed considerable importance. They were probably at first taken in seines, nets, and boats from the shore, but before the revolution fleets of sloops were engaged in the fishery, and in 1770 not fewer than 100 vessels were employed in Massachusetts. The use of vessels appears subsequently to have declined, and to have been revived about the beginning of the present century. Mackerel are caught on the coast of New England and as far S. as the entrance of Chesapeake bay, but the most productive fisheries are in the bay of Chaleurs and the gulf of St. Lawrence. From 1765 to 1775 Massachusetts employed annually in the cod fishery an average of 665 vessels, having an aggregate tonnage of 25,630, and manned by 4,405 men, and exported 178,800 quintals offish to Europe and 172,500 quintals to the West Indies. From 1786 to 1790 the number of vessels was 539 of 19,185 tons, employing 3,278 men, and the exports were 108,600 quintals to Europe and 142,050 quintals to the West Indies. Herring are taken to some extent in the rivers and bays from North Carolina northward, though the erection of mills and dams has driven them from many localities which they formerly frequented. American vessels, chiefly from Gloucester, Mass., the great fishing port of the country, visit New Brunswick, Newfoundland, the Magdalen islands, and Labrador for that fish, while the halibut fishery is pursued to some extent from that port on George's and the western banks and at Greenland. Extensive menhaden fisheries have sprung up within the last 15 years on Long Island, and at other points along the coast from New Jersey to Maine. The oil obtained from this fish is much used by leather dressers, and the scrap or refuse is a valuable ingredient in the manufacture of fertilizers for the exhausted cotton lands of the south. It is estimated that in 1873 2,000,000 gallons of oil, valued at $900,000, and 40,000 tons of scrap, worth $640,000, were produced. Oysters are found particularly in Chesapeake and Delaware bays, from which they are brought in large quantities and planted in the vicinity of New York city, where they acquire a peculiar flavor. Turtle are abundant in the waters surrounding the Florida keys, and the catch is of considerable value. Besides the sea fisheries, the river and lake fisheries of the United States are of great importance. There are valuable shad fisheries in the Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Potomac, and other rivers falling into the Atlantic. The great lake fisheries are those of Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior. The whitefish is the principal object of pursuit, though trout, pickerel, and lake herring are caught in large quantities. The waters of the Pacific, N. of California, abound in valuable fish, the fisheries of Alaska being of vast extent and great productiveness. Cod is the chief object of pursuit, but halibut and herring are also numerous. In 1864, 1 vessel was fitted out from San Francisco for the northern cod fishery; in 1865, 7; in 1866, 18; in 1867, 23; in 1868, 19; in 1869, 27; in 1870, 33. They frequent mainly the banks in the vicinity of Kadiak and the Shumagin and Fox islands, though the Okhotsk sea is occasionally visited. From 1864, when the business commenced, to 1870, 276,414 quintals of fish, valued at $2,457,414, were caught; the product of 1870 was 94,750 quintals, worth $754,840. The fishery is pursued during the summer. Several species of salmon, including the king salmon (onchorhynchus orientalis), which frequently weighs from 60 to 90 lbs., swarm in the Yukon and other Alaskan rivers. The salmon fisheries of the Columbia river are of great value. In 1872 the number of fish preserved was 332,000, weighing 5,300,000 lbs., and worth $359,000, of which 2,700,000 lbs. were canned, and 2,600,000 lbs. pickled. The following table exhibits the tonnage employed in the fisheries in the United States at various periods since 1790, the cod and mackerel fisheries prior to 1831 and since 1867 not being separated:
|Cod fishery.|| Mackerel
From 1850 to 1862 the number of vessels ranged from 2,414 to 3,815 (in the latter year); in 1868 the number was 2,220; in 1869, 1,714; in 1870, 2,292; in 1871, 2,426; in 1872, 2,385. In the last mentioned year 1,486 vessels of 87,403 tons were above 20 tons each, and 899 with a tonnage of 10,144 under 20 tons each; 666 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 18,790, belonged to Maine; 45, of 3,419 tons, to New Hampshire; 1,301, of 68,263 tons, to Massachusetts; 76, of 868 tons, to Rhode Island; 169, of 4,392 tons, to Connecticut; and 128, of 1,815 tons, to New York. In 1873 the number of vessels was 2,453, and the tonnage was distributed as follows: Massachusetts, 54,188; Maine, 46,196; Connecticut, 4,193; New York, 1,771; California, 1,177; Rhode Island, 1,071; New Hampshire, 922. There were 187 vessels of 44,755 tons engaged in the whale fishery. Of the number of fishing boats employed from the shore there are no accurate statistics. The number of seamen employed in the cod and mackerel fisheries in 1859 was 21,758; in 1862, 28,048; in 1864, 21,925; in 1868, 28,250. The tables of occupations in the census of 1870 include 27,106 fishermen and oystermen, but the returns are admitted to be imperfect, large numbers of persons engaged wholly or partially in fishing being returned as sailors, agriculturists, &c. The value in round numbers of the products of the national fisheries of all kinds, as returned in the censuses, was $12,000,000 in 1840, and $10,000,000 in 1850. The tables of fisheries in 1860 include 422 establishments in the whale fishery, having a capital of $13,292,060; value of materials used, $2,789,060; number of hands employed, 12,301; wages paid, $3,509,080; value of product, $7,749,305: oyster fishery, 427 establishments, $498,252 capital, $452,250 materials, 2,271 hands, $446,656 wages, and $1,410,497 product; other fisheries, 1,121 establishments, $4,129,447 capital, $1,060,910 materials, 15,811 hands, $2,121,841 wages, and $5,124,603 product; total, 1,970 establishments, $17,919,759 capita], $4,302,355 materials, 30,383 hands, $6,077,577 wages, and $14,284,405 product. The value of products in 1866 was $12,500,000. The fishery table in 1870, which does not include the whale fishery, returns 2,140 establishments, employing 20,504 hands; capital, $7,469,575; wages paid, $3,449,331; value of materials used, $1,642,276; of products, $11,096,522. The chief producing states were: Massachusetts, $6,215,325; Maine, $979,610; Connecticut, $769,799; Michigan, $567,576; Ohio, $383,121; New Jersey, $374,912; Washington territory, $289,746; North Carolina, $265,839; New York, $235,750; Wisconsin, $214,190; California, $150,260; Rhode Island, $124,505; Florida, $101,528. The principal items were 559,982 quintals of cod, 2,451 tons of halibut, 31,210 barrels of herring, 221,003 of mackerel, 69,561 barrels and 25,700 thousand whitefish, 647,312 bushels of oysters, 2,617,000 shad, 24,118 barrels of salmon, and 1,810,000 lbs. of canned salmon. The following table shows the value of the products of the national fisheries since 1858, brought in by vessels making entry at the custom house, but does not include the product of the shore fisheries, nor fish brought in by coasters and fishing smacks, except so far as unofficial information has been obtained, which in recent years has been much fuller than formerly, through the efforts of the bureau of statistics to obtain a complete statement:
other fish oil.
| Other products
|YEARS.|| Products of
The principal items in 1872, not including the whale fishery, were 733,487 quintals of codfish, valued at $3,194,286; 430,403 of mackerel, $2,456,009; 159,923 of herring, $340,963; 178,539 of other cured fish, $657,615; 693,700 bushels of oysters, $238,080; 45,077,273 lbs. of fresh fish (other than shell fish), $1,106,500; 1,437,343 gallons of oil, $508,402; 10,757 skins, $117,411; value of shell fish (other than oysters), $591,324; of other fishery products, $316,057. The quantity of salt withdrawn from warehouse for curing fish in 1871, under the act of 1866, was 64,671,139 lbs., valued at $66,007; in 1872, 57,830,929 lbs., worth $60,155. The table below includes the quantities of dried or smoked and of pickled fish exported, with the quantities of mackerel inspected, at various periods since 1790:
|YEARS.|| DRIED OR SMOKED
In 1871 the total value of exports of the products of the national fisheries was $2,612,890; of foreign fisheries, $376,018; in 1873, domestic exports, $2,913,897, including oysters to the value of $243,723, and whale and other fish oil to the value of $1,250,074; foreign exports, $544,690. The principal points of shipment are Great Britain, Hayti and Santo Domingo, France, Cuba, Porto Rico, the French and Dutch possessions in America, and the British West Indies. The imports of foreign fish and products thereof in 1871 amounted to $3,031,513; in 1873 to $3,191,506, including 8,636,279 lbs. of fresh fish for daily consumption, imported free of duty, valued at $278,921; 223,612 gallons of whale and other fish oil, $106,249; 68,692 barrels of herring, $359,262; 90,889 of mackerel, $610,457; and sardines and anchovies to the value of $1,172,704. With the exception of the sardines, which were brought from France and Great Britain, and some herrings imported from Germany, the imports were almost exclusively from British America.—The British American colonies are the seat of fisheries among the richest in the world, which have been pursued since the first settlement of those countries. Their early history is referred to above. In 1832 Nova Scotia employed 570 vessels and shallops and 640 boats, and exported 160,640 quintals of dried, 37,154 barrels of pickled, and 8,641 boxes of smoked fish, valued at $509,820; in 1843, 240 vessels, 3,400 boats, and 10,000 men. In 1851 the number of vessels was 812; of boats, 5,161; nets and seines, 30,154; men, 10,394; exports, 196,434 quintals of dried, 263,842 barrels of pickled, and 15,409 boxes of smoked fish, valued at $941,896. These figures are exclusive of Cape Breton, the product of which in 1847 was valued at $302,616. In 1869 the number of vessels was 635, with an aggregate tonnage of 21,656, besides 319 sail boats, 3,793 skiffs, &c., and 3,558 whale boats. The exports of New Brunswick in 1829 were valued at $137,930; in 1838, $200,405; in 1848, $126,130. The value of the fisheries of Nova Scotia in 1860 was $2,562,000; New Brunswick, $388,385; Canada, $700,000; total, $3,650,385. The products of the Dominion of Canada in 1869 amounted to $4,584,151 66; in 1870, to $7,677,391 72. For the year ending June 30, 1871, the products were valued at $7,673,200, viz.: Ontario, $193,524; Quebec, $1,193,612; New Brunswick, $1,185,033; Nova Scotia, $5,101,031; (Cape Breton, $1,283,050). The number of fishermen was 33,029, viz. : Ontario, 1,959; Quebec, 5,596; New Brunswick, 5,161; Nova Scotia, 20,313; (Cape Breton, 5,780). Quebec also returned 83 vessels, 2,651 fishing boats, 1,664 flatboats, 359 sailors, and 2,568 shoremen, as employed in the fisheries. The principal items of the catch were 670,437 cwt. of cod, 144,572 of scale fish (haddock, hake, and pollock), 13,600 of halibut, 240,305 barrels of mackerel, 385,700 of herring, 35,225 of alewives, 15,863 of shad, 60,050 of mixed fish, 13,317 of whitefish, 7,477 of trout, 7,613 of salmon, 2,017,484 lbs. of fresh salmon, 101,531 salmon in cans, 614,232 gallons of oil (mostly cod), 1,130,000 cans of lobsters, and 39,450 bushels of oysters. The value of the fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1872, was $9,570,116, viz.: Ontario, $267,633; Quebec, $1,320,189; New Brunswick, $1,965,459; Nova Scotia, $6,016,835. The principal items for Ontario were 17,940 barrels of whitefish, 7,586 of trout, and 6,974 of herrings; Quebec, 217,741 cwt. of cod, 29,047 barrels of herrings, and 136,529 gallons of cod oil; New Brunswick, 626 barrels and 1,474,777 lbs. of salmon, 2,049 barrels and 33,680 cans of mackerel, 89,398 barrels and 572,143 boxes (smoked) of herrings, 22,996 barrels of alewives, 6,949 of cod tongues and sounds, 3,071 of shad, 7,944 of eels, 24,620 of oysters, 81,421 quintals of cod, 19,931 of pollock, 37,442 of hake, 1,190 of haddock, 1,055,485 cans of lobsters, and 81,715 gallons of oil; Nova Scotia, 3,529 barrels and 629,525 lbs. of salmon, 115,631 barrels and 50,500 cans of mackerel, 168,513 barrels and 34,302 boxes (smoked) of herrings, 11,712 barrels of alewives, 4,643 of halibut, 3,867 of shad, 525,249 quintals of cod, 24,099 of pollock, 89,214 of hake, 2,422,058 cans of lobsters, and 414,419 gallons of oil. The rivers of British Columbia swarm with salmon, and the waters of the coast abound in cod, herring, halibut, &c.; but the fishery is undeveloped. Whitefish, trout, &c., are found extensively in Manitoba and the N. W. territory, particularly in the waters that empty into Hudson bay. The imports of fish and the products thereof into the Dominion for the year ending June 30, 1872, amounted to $1,083,686, of which $41,613 were brought into Ontario, $381,982 into Quebec, $30,601 into New Brunswick, $619,243 into Nova Scotia, and $10,093 into British Columbia. Of the whole amount, $919,340 worth came from Newfoundland and Prince Edward island. The exports amounted to $4,328,332, viz.: $59,856 from Ontario, $758,890 from Quebec, $271,059 from New Brunswick, $3,200,821 from Nova Scotia, and $37,706 from British Columbia. The principal points to which the exports were taken are the West Indies, the United States, South America, Great Britain, Italy, and Portugal. The value of fish caught in Prince Edward island in 1860 was $272,532; in 1869, $169,580, of which $110,670 were mackerel, $19,017 herring, and $39,893 cod and scale fish. The product of the Newfoundland fisheries in 1860 has been stated at $4,440,000. The principal items of export since 1868 have been as follows:
| Cod oil,
| Seal oil,
| Seal skins, |
In 1872 there were also exported 5,049 tierces of salmon, 2,189 barrels of trout, 1,519 of other fish, 441 cwt. of halibut and haddock, 124 packages of tongues and sounds, 9,567 gallons of whale oil, 14,616 of other oil, and 26,208 of blubber. Of the cod in the above table, 303,404 quintals were exported from Labrador, and of the herring 53,780 barrels. The total value of the exports from Newfoundland in 1869 was a little less than £1,800,000; the chief markets are Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Great Britain, and the British West Indies. The population of the colony in 1869 was 146,536, of whom nine tenths are directly or indirectly engaged in the fisheries. The number of fishermen in 1873 was 32,000. The total annual value of the fisheries on the banks and off the coasts of the British North American provinces was estimated in 1869 by the United States consul at Halifax at nearly $23,000,000, viz.: provincial fisheries, nearly $12,000,000; United States, $7,000,000; French, $4,000,000.—The most comprehensive account of the fisheries of the world and of their commercial value is contained in a report of Col. Richard D. Cutts of Washington to the secretary of state on “The Commerce in the Products of the Sea,” made in 1869, and printed by order of the senate as executive document No. 34 of the 2d session of the 42d congress. The statistics are for 1865. We extract several important statements from this report. The following table exhibits for 15 countries the gold value of the principal products of the sea, with the chief producing countries in the order of value :
|Norway, France, Newfoundland, United States, &c.||Codfish||$20,730,249|
|Norway, Great Britain, Russia, &c.||Herring||17,685,408|
|United States, Great Britain, &c||Whale oil||6,057,967|
|United States, Nova Scotia, France, &c||Mackerel||4,689,687|
|Norway, France, United States, &c.||Cod-liver oil||3,449,896|
|France, Italy, Spain, &c||Sardines||2,600,000|
|Great Britain, Holland, Nova Scotia, &c||Salmon||1,852,784|
|United States, Great Britain, &c||Whalebone||1,407,389|
|Newfoundland, Norway, &c||Seal oil||757,838|
Another table shows the annual value of the sea fisheries of 22 countries, with the total annual consumption and that per capita:
|Nova Scotia||3,476,462||374,770||1 12|
|Prince Edward island||400,000||100,085||1 24|
If to this total the product of Turkey, Brazil, Australia, China, &c., were added, the sum would be increased to $90,000,000 as the annual value of those products of the sea fisheries which are the subject of statistical record. The products of the seas, rivers, and lakes of the United Kingdom, consumed without record in England, have been estimated at more than $8,000,000 annually; the river herring, shad, whitefish, oysters, &c., sold in the coast and lake fish markets of the United States are valued at over $7,000,000; and the interior fisheries of Russia in Europe at $6,000,000. Similar estimates for other countries would produce an aggregate of $30,000,000, making a total of $120,000,000 as the annual value of the fisheries, maritime and inland, of the world. The returns of 10 of the countries included in the above table embrace 80,883 vessels and boats, with an aggregate tonnage of 551,456, and 309,682 men; and it is estimated that 450,000 men are directly engaged in the fisheries of the whole 22. The annual value of the commerce in products of the sea fisheries as shown by the returns of 48 countries and dependencies is over $41,000,000. The following table exhibits the imports, exports, and balance of trade in fishery products of the principal nations:
|COUNTRIES.|| Imports of
| Deficiency |
|Prince Edwd. isl.||30,000||329,915||299,915||.......|
The exports from the Hawaiian islands were in great part the catch of American whalers sold or exchanged at Honolulu. International fishery exhibitions have been recently held at Amsterdam, Holland; at Bergen, Norway; at Boulogne-sur-Mer, France; and at some other places.—See Histoire des pêches, des découvertes et des établissements des Hollandais dans les mers du nord, by B. de Reste (Paris, 1801); “On the Public Fisheries of Great Britain and the Rise and Progress of the Dutch Fishery,” by H. Schultes (London, 1813); “A Review of the Domestic Fisheries of Great Britain and Ireland,” by Robert Fraser (Edinburgh, 1818); “Frank Forester's Fish and Fishing of the United States and British Provinces of North America,” by H. W. Herbert (New York, 1851); “Report on the Sea and River Fisheries of New Brunswick,” by M. H. Perley (Fredericton, 1852); “Report on the principal Fisheries of the American Seas,” by Lorenzo Sabine (Washington, 1853); “The Sea and its Living Wonders,” by Dr. G. Hartwig (London, 1866); La boutique de la marchande de poissons, by Martial Deherrypon (Paris, 1867); La pêche et les poissons, by H. de la Blanchère (Paris, 1868); Les grandes pêches, by Victor Meunier (Paris, 1868); “The Ocean World,” by Louis Figuier (London, 1868); “The Harvest of the Sea,” by J. G. Bertram (London, 1869); and “Report on the Condition of the Sea Fisheries of the South Coast of New England in 1871 and 1872,” by Spencer F. Baird (Washington, 1873).
- Spermaceti, whale, and other fish oil.
- Other products of the fisheries.
- In 1804.
- In Massachusetts.