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INDIANA, one of the interior states of the American Union, and the sixth admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 37° 47' and 41° 46' N., and lon. 84° 49' and 88° 2' W.; extreme length N. and S. 276 m., average breadth 140 m.; area, 33,809 sq. m., or 21,637,760 acres. It is bounded N. by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan, E. by Ohio, S. by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, and W. by Illinois, from which it is partly separated by the Wabash.

AmCyc Indiana - seal.jpg

State Seal of Indiana.

It is divided into 92 counties, viz.: Adams, Allen, Bartholomew, Benton, Blackford, Boone, Brown, Carroll, Cass, Clark, Clay, Clinton, Crawford, Daviess, Dearborn, Decatur, De Kalb, Delaware, Dubois, Elkhart, Fayette, Floyd, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, Gibson, Grant, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Harrison, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, Huntington, Jackson, Jasper, Jay, Jefferson, Jennings, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusko, La Grange, Lake, La Porte, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Martin, Miami, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Noble, Ohio, Orange, Owen, Parke, Perry, Pike, Porter, Posey, Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Ripley, Rush, St. Joseph, Scott, Shelby, Spencer, Starke, Steuben, Sullivan, Switzerland, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Union, Vanderburgh, Vermilion, Vigo, Wabash, Warren, Warrick, Washington, Wayne, Wells, White, Whitley. Indianapolis, the capital, is near the centre of the state. In 1874 there were 27 cities in Indiana: Columbia, with 1,663 inhabitants in 1870; Connersville, 2,496; Evansville, 21,830; Fort Wayne, 17,718; Franklin City, 2,707; Goshen, 3,133; Greencastle, 3,227; Kendallville, 2,164; Indianapolis, 48,244; Jeffersonville, 7,254; Lafayette, 13,506; La Porte, 6,581; Lawrenceburg, 3,159; Logansport, 8,950; Madison, 10,709; Mount Vernon, 2,880; New Albany, 15,396; Peru, 3,617; Richmond, 9,445; Rising Sun, 1,760; Seymour, 2,372; Shelbyville, 2,731; South Bend, 7,206; Terre Haute, 16,103; Valparaiso, 2,765; Vincennes, 5,440; and Wabash City, 2,881. Michigan City is the only lake port of the state. The population in 1800 and at subsequent decennial periods was as follows:

 CENSUS YEARS.  White. Free
 Colored. 
 Slaves.  Total.  Rank. 






1800 5,343  163  135  5,641  20 
1810 23,890  393  237  24,520  21 
1820 145,758  1,230  190  147,178  18 
1830 339,399  3,629  343,031  13 
1840 678,698  7,165  685,866  10 
1850 977,154  11,262  ..  988,416 
1860 1,388,710  11,428  ..  1,350,428 
1870  1,655,887   24,560  ..   1,680,637 

Of the total population in 1870, 857,994 were males and 822,643 females; 1,539,163 were of native and 141,474 of foreign birth; and there were 240 Indians. Of the native-born, 1,048,575 were born in the state, 16,598 in Illinois, 3,483 in Iowa, 76,524 in Kentucky, 3,490 in Massachusetts, 5,693 in Michigan, 6,682 in New Jersey, 29,518 in New York, 24,799 in North Carolina, 189,359 in Ohio, 57,291 in Pennsylvania, 12,276 in Tennessee, and 32,489 in Virginia and West Virginia. Of the foreigners, 4,765 were born in British America, 6,363 in France, 78,060 in Germany, 9,945 in England, 28,698 in Ireland, 2,507 in Scotland, 556 in Wales, 873 in Holland, 2,180 in Sweden, and 4,287 in Switzerland. The density of population was 49.71 persons to a square mile. The state contained 320,160 families, with an average of 5.25 persons each, and 318,469 dwellings, with an average of 5.28 persons each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 24.45 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 376,780. There were in the state 567,175 persons from 5 to 18 years of age; the total number of persons attending school was 395,263; 76,634 persons 10 years of age and over were unable to read, and 127,124 could not write. Of the latter, 113,185 were of native and 13,939 of foreign birth; 53,359 were males and 73,765 females; 118,761 were white and 8,258 colored; 11,072 were from 10 to 15 years old, 15,630 from 15 to 21, and 100,422 were 21 and over, of whom 36,331 were white males, 57,651 white females, 3,182 colored males, 3,181 colored females, and 77 Indians. The percentage of illiterates 10 years of age and over to the total population of the same age was 10.61, being 8.71 for males and 12.61 for females. The percentage of illiteracy among male adults was 10.09; females, 16.77. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 4,657, at a cost of $403,521. On June 1, 1870, 3,652 were receiving support, of whom 2,790 were natives, including 2,583 white and 207 colored, and 862 foreigners. There were 1,374 criminals committed during the year. Of the total number (907) in prison June 1, 1870, 755 were of native and 152 of foreign birth; of the natives, 691 were white and 64 colored. The state contained 991 blind, 872 deaf and dumb, 1,504 insane, and 1,360 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (1,197,936), there were engaged in all occupations 459,369 persons; in agriculture, 266,777, including 83,949 laborers, and 181,895 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 80,018, of whom 1,787 were clergymen, 22,542 domestic servants, 34,954 laborers not specified, 1,685 lawyers, 3,613 physicians and surgeons, and 5,018 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 36,517; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 76,057. The number of deaths from all causes was 17,661; from consumption, 2,807, being 1 death from consumption to 6.3 from all causes; from pneumonia, 1,514, being 1 from that disease to 11.7 from all causes; from diphtheria and scarlet fever, 594; from intermittent and remittent fevers, 521; from enteric fever, 1,029; from diarrhœa, dysentery, and enteritis, 1,241.—Indiana is entirely wanting in mountains, and at least two thirds of the surface is level or undulating. It has consequently no watershed, but there are continuous slopes of great extent, and the difference of elevation between the highest land and the Ohio river at the falls is nearly 600 ft., and a considerable difference (about 70 ft.) is observed between the level of the Ohio at the falls and at the mouth of the Wabash. The river hills extend at various distances from and parallel to the course of the Ohio and other streams, and enclose bottom lands which are chiefly rich alluvions and thickly wooded. These hills along the Ohio are generally as high as the highest levels of the interior, often of a rugged and broken aspect, and where cut through by tributaries of the Ohio present much imposing scenery. Behind these a table land spreads out and forms the interior and here every feature is changed; instead of the bottoms, with their forests, the most varied landscape appears—here groves of oak, ash, and other trees, there vast level prairies; and again the surface is undulating, and occasionally rises into hills from 100 to 300 ft. high. For topographical description, however, the state may be divided into the valleys of its rivers. The Ohio valley, including that of the Whitewater, contains about 5,500 sq. m.; this is a limestone region, and was originally clothed with heavy forests. The hills are abrupt and broken, and numerous tributaries of the Ohio break through them. Of this division of the state about two thirds is good farming land, and the residue either too hilly or too sterile for profitable cultivation. White River valley extends from the Wabash centrally through the state to the Ohio line, and covers about 9,000 sq. m. It is almost uniformly level, and heavily timbered, except in the W. parts, where there are large prairies and barrens and ranges of low rugged hills. Limestone beds exist on White river and between its two forks, and are abundant and excellent along the lower part of the river. The soils are of the richest description. Most of the streams are clear and never-failing, and water power is abundant. The Wabash valley is the largest division, and embraces upward of 12,000 sq. m. It interlocks with that of White river, and the E. portion resembles it. It is equally fertile, but less broken. The middle part of the valley has extensive water power. From the river hills of the Ohio to the Wabash the surface is an inclined plane. The valley of the Maumee occupies about 2,000 sq. m. in the N. E., and carries its waters to Lake Erie. The N. and N. W. part of the state, drained by the St. Joseph's, which flows into Lake Michigan, and the Kankakee, a constituent of the Illinois, in its general character is level, mostly prairie; in parts it is sandy, and along the Kankakee swampy. Near Lake Michigan the country has extensive sand hills, which are covered only with stunted and shrivelled pines and burr oaks; but a few miles back from the lake shore a rich agricultural country is found.—The Ohio, the final recipient of the principal streams, borders the state on the south from the Miami to the Wabash, a distance by the river's course of 380 m. Laughery, Indian Kentucky, Silver, Indian Blue, Anderson, Big Pigeon, Little Pigeon, &c., are its principal tributaries from Indiana, but none of them are navigable. The Whitewater joins the Miami 6 m. above its entrance into the Ohio. The Wabash has its head waters in Ohio; at first its course is N. W. to the middle of Huntington co., thence W. S. W. to Williamsport in Warren co., and the remainder of its course S. to the Ohio. Its length is about 550 m., and it has been navigated about 300 m. by steamboats. Its principal affluents are, from the south and east, the Salamonie, Mississinewa, Wildcat, Sugar or Kock, Raccoon, and Patoka rivers; and from the north and west, Little Wabash and Embarras in Illinois, the Vermilion in both states, and in Indiana Tippecanoe, Eel, and Little rivers. White river, the most important of these, falls into the Wabash 100 m. above its mouth; the West fork, its longest branch, rises near the Ohio line, not far from the S. sources of the Wabash and W. constituents of the Miami, and runs in a S. W. direction, receiving in its course Eel river, Fall creek, &c.; and the East fork, the principal feeders of which are Salt, Muscatatuck, Sand, Clifty, Flat Rock, Sugar, and other streams, rises in the S. E. part of the state, and has a W. course to its union with the West fork, the two forming White river proper, 50 in. above its entrance into the Wabash. The St. Joseph's and St. Mary's form the Maumee, which passes into Ohio and to Lake Erie. Another St. Joseph's, with its tributaries the Elkhart, &c., passes into Lake Michigan. The Kankakee, a principal constituent of the Illinois, runs sluggishly through the N. W. counties for 100 m.; extensive marshes everywhere hound its course. The Iroquois or Pickamink rises S. of the Kankakee, runs nearly parallel to it for 50 m., and joins it in Illinois. Deep and Calumet rivers lie near to and S. of Lake Michigan, and in some places are only separated from it by banks of sand. Numerous lakes and ponds are found, principally N. of the Wabash. Several of them have no outlets; they are generally clear, and have sandy shores and bottoms. They seldom exceed a few acres in extent, though several at the head of Tippecanoe river and Turtle creek, and near the city of La Porte, cover a considerable area. The largest, Beaver lake, near the Illinois line in Jasper co., had a surface of 10,000 acres, and on the south was bordered by an extensive marsh; but most of the land has been reclaimed, and the lake itself nearly drained.—The geological survey of Indiana has been several years in progress under the direction of the state geologist, Prof. E. T. Cox, assisted by Professors John Collett, B. C. Hobbs, R. B. Warder, and Dr. G. M. Levette. The third and fourth annual reports, for the years 1871 and 1872, were published in one volume in 1872. The most valuable mineral found in Indiana is coal, which exists here in great abundance, and forms part of the great coal field which extends through Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. The following statement by Prof. Cox shows the extent and character of this important source of wealth: “The measures cover an area of about 6,500 sq. m., in the S. W. part of the state, and extend from Warren co. on the north to the Ohio river on the south, a distance of about 150 m. The following counties lie within its area: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermilion, Vigo, Clay, Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, and a small part of Crawford, Monroe, Putnam, and Montgomery. The coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well marked varieties: caking coal, non-caking or block coal, and cannel coal. The total depth of the measures is from 600 to 800 ft., with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal, though they are not all present throughout the entire area of the field. The seams range from 1 ft. to 11 ft. in thickness, and the field may, from the character of the coal, be divided from north to south into two zones; the western contains the seams of caking coal, and the eastern the non-caking or block coal. There are from three to four workable seams of caking coal, ranging from 3½ to 11 ft. in thickness. At most of the localities where these are being worked, the coal is mined by adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in the state are less than 300 ft., the average depth to win the coal being not over 75 ft. The eastern zone of the coal measures has an area of more than 450 sq. m. It is here that we find the celebrated block coal, a fossil fuel which is used in the raw state for making pig iron. In fact this coal, from its physical structure and freedom from impurities, is peculiarly suited to metallurgical purposes. It is likewise valuable for generating steam and for household uses. There are as many as eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of which are workable, having an average thickness of 4 ft. In some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 40 to 80 ft. deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in blocks weighing a ton or more.” In 1871 there were 24 block coal mines in operation, and about 1,500 tons were mined daily; in 1873 the number of mines had increased to upward of 50, and the daily production to about 5,000 tons. In 1873 eight blast furnaces in Indiana were using the block coal for smelting ores. The quality of the coal, its vicinity to available iron ore beds, together with convenient railroad facilities, give to Indiana marked advantages for the manufacture of iron and steel. (For an analysis of the coal of Indiana, see Coal.) A seam of superior cannel coal is worked in Daviess co.; the vein is 5 ft. thick, the upper 3½ ft. being eannel coal and the remainder a beautiful jet-black caking coal. Peat or turf exists in considerable quantities in the northern part of the state, but, owing to the abundance of wood, is not much used. There are numerous deposits of bog iron ore in the northern part of the state, and clay ironstones and impure carbonates and brown oxides are scattered over the counties embraced in the coal measures. In some places the beds are quite thick, and, though inferior to the rich pure ores of Missouri, will prove valuable for mixing with the latter and aid in making special grades of iron. Indiana possesses some of the finest quarries of building stone in the west; they include both limestone and sandstone. Ganister rock, used for furnace hearths and for lining Bessemer converters, and fire clays, are also found in great abundance. Salt springs exist on the eastern border of the coal formation. Perhaps the most remarkable natural curiosity in Indiana is the Wyandotte cave, 4 m. from Leavenworth, Crawford co., in the southern part of the state, which in many respects rivals the famous Mammoth cave of Kentucky. (See Wyandotte Cave.)—The climate, like that of all the states W. of the Ohio, is liable to frequent and sudden changes. The prevailing winds in winter are from the north and northwest, and in other seasons from the south and southwest, and from the general evenness of the country have a free passage and are in constant motion. The heats of summer are thus modified; but in winter the cold is extreme, though less so than in Illinois. The mean temperature of the year is 52°; that of winter 31°, of spring 51°, of summer 76°, and of autumn 55°. This is nearly the climate of Bordeaux, France, 5° further S. than Indianapolis and on the seaboard. The rainfall is about 38 in. in the year, viz.: 4.97 in winter, 7.79 in spring, 16.92 in summer, and 7.87 in autumn. The earlier fruits blossom in March.—The soil is generally good, and much of it remarkably fertile. The richest lands are found along the Wabash, White, and Whitewater rivers. Few states have so little unavailable land; even its wet and marshy lands are brought under successful cultivation. About one eighth part of the state is prairie land, and about one third is covered with a fine forest. The forests contain all the trees natural to the climate of the middle zone of the Union, but oak and beech preponderate; next in order are the sugar maple, hickory, ash, black walnut, poplar, elm, sycamore, &c.; and the principal undergrowths are dogwood, pawpaw, plum, thorn, persimmon, and crabapple. In most parts oak and beech mast is found in such quantities as to contribute largely to feeding and fattening hogs.—Indiana ranks high as an agricultural state; in the production of wheat in 1870 it ranked next to Illinois and Iowa, and in Indian corn next to Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Missouri. The chief farm productions and live stock, as reported by the federal census in 1870 and the state authorities in 1873, were as follows:

 PRODUCTIONS.  1870. 1873.



Wheat, bushels  27,747,222   22,149,527 
Indian corn 51,094,538  81,185,485 
Rye 457,463  333,153 
Oats 8,590,409  11,434,628 
Barley 356,262  522,943 
Buckwheat 80,231  ...... 
Peas and beans 35,526  ...... 
Potatoes 5,549,749  8,412,159 
Grass and clover seed 78,545  137,747 
Fruit ......  3,473,161 
Flaxseed 409,931  389,179 
Flax, pounds 37,771  ...... 
Hemp, tons 22  18,794 
Hay 1,076,768  825,477 
Tobacco, pounds 9,325,892  12,377,182 
Wool 5,029,023  2,228,437 
Hops 63,884  29,729 
Beef ......  3,329,067 
Bacon ......  40,716,539 
Pork in bulk ......  30,913,745 
Lard ......  11,391,432 
Butter 29,915,385  ...... 
Cheese 283,807  ...... 
Milk, gallons sold 936,983  ...... 
maple sugar, pounds 1,332,332  302,041 
Maple molasses, gallons  227,880  57,675 
Sorghum molasses 2,026,212  501,363 
Honey, pounds 395,278  ...... 
Wax 12,049  ...... 
Wine, gallons 19,479  827,480 
Cider ......  1,097,019 
Vinegar ......  385,835 
Horses, number 497,833  514,438 
Mules and asses 43,259  54,307 
Milch cows 393,736  ...... 
Working oxen 14,088  ...... 
Other cattle 618,360  ...... 
Sheep 1,612,680  1,235,874 
Swine 1,872,239  2,999,139 
Cattle ......  1,211,246 

The returns of live stock for 1870 include only animals on farms, while in 1873 the entire number in the state is returned. According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 10,104,279 acres of improved land, 7,189,334 of woodland, and 826,035 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 161,289, including 55,614 containing 20 and under 50 acres; 52,614, 50 and under 100; 29,433, 100 and under 500; 1,004,500 and under 1,000; and 76, 1,000 and over. The cash value of farms was $634,804,189; of farming implements and machinery, $17,676,591; wages paid during the year, including value of board, $9,675,348; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $122,914,302; value of orchard products, $2,858,086; of produce of market gardens, $486,477; of forest products, $2,645,679; of home manufactures, $605,639; of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter, $30,246,962; of all live stock, $83,776,762. In 1873 there were 6,162,157 acres in cultivation, of which 1,902,599 were devoted to wheat, 2,627,980 to Indian corn, 624,795 to oats, 985,529 to meadow, and 4,511,775 to pasture and woodland. The value of slaughtered animals was $3,938,754. There were 570,382 tons of coal mined, and 1,167,661 bushels of lime made.—Indiana has no direct foreign commerce, but it has a vast domestic and inter-state trade by means of its navigable waters and magnificent systems of railroads and canals. Its geographical position is such that the whole land commerce between the manufacturing states of the east and the country west of the Mississippi must pass through its territory. Evansville is a United States port of delivery. In 1873 there were enrolled here 75 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 11,474. In 1845 there were 30 m. of railroad in Indiana; in 1855, 1,406; in 1865, 2,217; in 1870, 3,177; and in 1873, 3,544. Of the 92 counties of the state, all but five were in the last mentioned year traversed by railroads. The following table exhibits the railroads of the state in 1873, with their termini; also the assessed value, including main and side track and rolling stock, as reported by the state board of equalization:

CORPORATIONS. TERMINI. Miles
 completed 
in the
state in
1873.
 Miles between 
termini when
different
 from preceding. 
 Total assessment. 





Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Indianapolis  Hamilton, O., and Indianapolis 77  98 
$551,226
160,665
147,975
32,875
429,607  (83 m.)
107,713
262,386  (57 m.)
1,525,680
428,960
852,540
292,847  (43 m.)
423,740
598,661  (104 m.)
513,060
77,250
48,787
971,736
1,651,200
1,077,518  (144 m.)
1,051,282
592,354
1,441,728
334,812
445,098
316,758
.......
 4,112,664
618,500  (110 m.)
1,045,162
67,641
1,096,316
.......
3,306,080
4,909,155
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
204,490
1,586,665
3,046,328
368,466
Cincinnati, Lafayette, and Chicago  Lafayette and Kankuken, Ill. 21  75 
Cincinnati and Martinsville  Fairland and Martinsville 39  ... 
Cincinnati, Richmond, and Chicago  Cincinnati, O., and Richmond 42 
Cincinnati, Richmond, and Fort Wayne  Richmond and Fort Wayne 92  ... 
Cincinnati and Terre Haute  Cincinnati. O., and Terre Haute 20  180 
Cincinnati, Wabash, and Michigan  Anderson to Michigan state line 81  132 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis (Indianapolis division)   Galion, O., and Indianapolis 84  203 
Detroit, Eel River, and Illinois  Butler and Logansport 82  92 
Evansville and Crawfordsville  Evansville and Terre Haute 109  ... 
Evansville, Terre Haute, and Chicago  Terre Haute and Danville 55  ... 
Fort Wayne, Jackson, and Saginaw  Jackson, Mich., and Fort Wayne 58  100 
Fort Wayne, Muncie, and Cincinnati  Fort Wayne and Connersville 108  ... 
Grand Rapids and Indiana  Fort Wayne and Traverse City, Mich.  51  289 
Indiana North and South  Oxford and Newburg 13  190 
Indiana and Illinois Central  Indianapolis and Decatur, Ill. 152 
Indianapolis, Bloomington, and Western  Indianapolis and Pekin, Ill. 78  202 
Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette  Cincinnati, O., and Lafayette 158  178 
Indianapolis, Peru, and Chicago  Indianapolis and Michigan City 161  ... 
Indianapolis and St. Louis  Indianapolis and St. Louis, Mo 78  261 
Indianapolis and Vincennes  Indianapolis and Vincennes 116  ... 
Jeffersonville, Madison, and Indianapolis  Louisville, Ky., and Indianapolis 110  ... 
Branches
 Columbus to Madison 45  ... 
 Columbus to Cambridge City 65  ... 
Lafayette, Muncie and Bloomington  Muncie to Illinois state line 36  115 
Lake Erie, Evansville, and Southwestern  Evansville and Bellefontaine, O. 17  300 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern  Buffalo, N. Y., and Chicago, Ill. 167  539 
Logansport, Crawfordsville, and Southwestern  Logansport and Terre Haute 115  ... 
Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago  New Albany and Michigan City 288  ... 
Louisville, New Albany, and St. Louis Air Line  New Albany and Mt. Vernon, Ill. 13  150 
Michigan Central  Detroit, Mich., and Chicago, Ill. 42  285 
Joliet and Northern Indiana  Lake Station to Joliet, Ill. 15  44 
Ohio and Mississippi  Cincinnati, O., and St. Louis, Mo. 225  340 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis  .. ...  ... 
Divisions
 Columbus, O., to Indianapolis 73  188 
 Columbus, O., to Chicago, Ill. 196  314 
 Union to Logansport 91  ... 
 Logansport to Illinois line 59  ... 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago  Pittsburgh, Pa., and Chicago, Ill. 156  468 
St. Louis and Southeastern  St. Louis, Mo., and Nashville, Tenn.  28  316 
Terre Haute and Indianapolis  Indianapolis to Illinois line 79  ... 
Toledo, Wabash, and Western  Toledo, O., and Camp Point, Ill. 166  454 
White Water Valley  Harrison, O., and Hagerstown 62  ... 

The Wabash and Erie canal, the longest in the United States, connecting the Maumee river at Toledo with Evansville on the Ohio, 467 m., has 374 m. of its course in Indiana, and passes through Fort Wayne, Huntington, Wabash, Peru, Logansport, Delphi, Lafayette, Attica, Covington, Montezuma, Terre Haute, Bloomfleld, and Petersburg. The Whitewater canal extends from Lawrenceburg on the Ohio to Hagerstown, 75 m., and takes in its course Brooksville, Connersville, and Cambridge. These canals are little used now. In 1873 the state contained 6,943 miles of telegraph, the assessed value of which was $807,874. There were 125 foreign insurance companies doing business in the state; their gross receipts for the six months ending July 1, 1873, amounted to $1,169,413; losses paid, $608,950; tax paid, $17,498. There were 92 national banks, with an aggregate paid-in capital of $17,611,800, and an outstanding circulation of $14,536,015. The bank circulation of the state was 14,706,415, being $8 75 per capita and 1.2 per cent. of the wealth of the state; ratio of circulation to capital, 81.9. The total number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 11,847, using 2,881 steam engines of 76,851 horse power and 1,090 water wheels of 23,518 horse power, and employing 58,852 hands, of whom 54,412 were males above 16 years of age, 2,272 females above 15, and 2,168 youths. The capital invested amounted to $52,052,425; wages paid during the year, $18,366,780; value of materials consumed, $63,135,492; of products, $108,617,278. The chief industries are exhibited in the following table:

INDUSTRIES. No. of
 establishments. 
Steam
 engines, 
horse
power.
Water
 wheels, 
horse
power.
Hands
 employed. 
Capital. Wages.  Materials.  Products.









Agricultural implements 124  860  165  1,268   $1,622,769  $484,526  $951,714   $2,128,794 
Boots and shoes 988  ....  ....  2,702  842,497  651,750  1,094,977  2,699,114 
Carpentering and building 095  216  ....  2,893  541,720  758,847  1,501,329  3,448,959 
Carriages and wagons 770  380  285  3,325  2,196,485  1,034,146  1,276,233  3,616,068 
Cars, freight and passenger 10  376  ....  1,403  625,833  834,124  1,639,340  2,577,726 
Clothing, men's 229  ....  ....  1,531  760,309  498,850  1,289,782  2,261,374 
Cooperage 357  253  ....  1,868  611,037  584,241  950,743  1,921,878 
Flouring and grist-mill products 962  16,676  13,667  3,214  2,346,373  896,717   20,602,231  25,371,322 
Furniture, not specified 319  1,500  512  2,780  8,515,627   1,110,660  1,267,081  3,463,270 
Iron, forged and rolled 3,250  ....  989  l,588,000  529,209  1,984,668  2,845,005 
Iron, pigs 1,725  ....  189  425,000  159,400  825,435  1,191,834 
Iron, castings, not specified 96  966  253  949  1,281,532  470,733  1,619,851  2,592,908 
Leather, tanned 197  535  514  875,740  142,468  905,347  1,310,242 
Leather, curried 156  147  ....  319  303,810  84,981  909,778  1,151,307 
Liquors, distilled 36  703  30  280  658,838  126,150  1,358,196  2,038,420 
Liquors, malt 99  358  35  443  1,117,400  175,730  627,576  1,315,116 
Lumber, planed 85  1,783  128  638  796,677  242,579  795,051  1,374,104 
Lumber, sawed 1,861  34,696  5,303  9,446  5,975,746  1,901,612  5,563,985  12,324,755 
Machinery, not specified 62  761  127  1,148  1,047,376  628,774  652,089  1,493,694 
Machinery, st'm engines and boilers 33  632  ....  1,006  1,352,716  578,653  1,369,104  2,387,330 
Pork packed 11  179  ....  452  1,598,000  92,862  2,262,737  2,780,021 
Saddlery and harness 436  ....  ....  1,333  625,680  321,212  806,903  1,654,341 
Sash, doors, and blinds 59  1,212  165  640  663,650  291,856  536,004  1,089,404 
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 322  ....  ....  996  751,005  275,017  620,560  1,293,206 
Woollen goods 146  2,718  1,138  2,895  8,770,513  717,176  2,595,604  4,212,787 

The constitution of Indiana is dated Feb. 10, 1851, and superseded that of June 29, 1816. Every male citizen 21 years of age, and who has resided in the state six months, possesses the right of voting. The general assembly consists of a senate of 50 members elected for four years, one half every second year, and a house of representatives of 100 members elected for two years. The legislative sessions are biennial, beginning on the Thursday after the first Monday of January in odd years. Members of the legislature receive $8 a day during the session. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected for four years; the former has a salary of $8,000 a year. The other chief state officers are the secretary of state, salary $2,000; auditor, $2,500; treasurer, $3,000; attorney general, $3,000; and superintendent of public instruction, $2,000. These officials are elected for a term of two years. A majority vote of each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the veto of the executive. The state election is held on the second Tuesday of October in even years. The judicial power is vested in a supreme, a circuit, and a superior court. The supreme court consists of five judges, who are elected by the people for a term of six years, and receive an annual salary of $4,000 each. The state Is divided into five supreme judicial districts and 38 circuit districts. Each of the 38 circuit judges receives an annual salary of $2,500; they are elected by the people for a term of six years. A superior court of three judges elected for four years may be established in any county containing a city of 40,000 inhabitants; the only one yet established is in Marion co., of which Indianapolis is the chief city. Special criminal circuit courts are provided for seven counties of the state: Allen, Floyd, Clark, Marion, Tippecanoe, Vanderburgh, and Vigo. The officers elected by the people in each county are, a clerk of circuit court, auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner, and surveyor—the first three for four years, and the others for two years. Justices of the peace are elected in each township for four years. Indiana is represented in congress by two senators and 13 representatives, and has therefore 15 votes in the electoral college. The system of granting divorces in Indiana, which had attracted wide attention on account of its elasticity, was amended in 1873 and made somewhat more stringent. The causes of divorce under the new law are: 1, adultery, except in certain specified cases; 2, impotency existing at the time of the marriage; 3, abandonment for two years; 4, cruel and inhuman treatment of either party by the other; 5, habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family; 6, the failure of the husband to make reasonable provision for his family for a period of two years; 7, the conviction of either party subsequent to the marriage, in any country, of an infamous crime. Divorces may be decreed by the circuit or superior court on petition of a person who is and has been a bona fide resident of the state for the preceding two years, and of the county for at least six months; such residence to be proved by the oath of the petitioner and the testimony of at least two witnesses who are resident freeholders and householders of the state. Murder, treason, and killing in a duel are capital offences, punishable with death. Marriage between negroes and white persons is declared a misdemeanor, the penalty of which is imprisonment from one to ten years. By act of 1873 women are declared eligible to any office the election or appointment to which is vested in the general assembly or the governor. The state debt on Nov. 1, 1873, was $4,898,657, including $3,904,733 domestic and $994,030 foreign debt. The receipts into the state treasury during the preceding year were $2,875,449, and the disbursements, including several extraordinary items, $3,445,298. Of the receipts, $438,191 were from state revenue, $1,372,993 from the common school fund, $190,603 from public institutions, and $1,524,545 from miscellaneous sources. The most important items of expenditure were $1,361,341 for common schools, $1,193,442 on account of public debt, $352,576 for benevolent institutions, $296,180 for reformatory institutions, $289,934 for ordinary expenses, and $278,373 for legislative expenses. The state tax was 15 cents on the $100 for general purposes, and 16 cents for schools. The total valuation of real and personal property was $279,032,209 in 1856, $578,484,109 in 1866, $662,283,178 in 1870, and $950,467,854 in 1873, the last including personal property to the extent of $247,146,331.—The public institutions supported entirely or in part by the state are the hospital for the insane, the institution for the deaf and dumb, and the institution for the blind in Indianapolis, house of refuge at Plainfield, soldiers' home at Knightstown, northern state prison at Michigan City, southern state prison at Jeffersonville, reformatory institution for women and girls in Indianapolis, normal school in Terre Haute, state university at Bloomington, and agricultural college at Lafayette. The state hospital for the insane, which was opened in 1848, had 474 inmates at the close of 1873; during the year 320 were admitted and 314 discharged. The current expenditures for the year amounted to $155,470. The institution for educating the deaf and dumb is open to all persons of that class in the state between the ages of 10 and 21 years, free of charge for board and tuition. It is not an asylum, but an educational institution, and comprises a manual labor department. In 1873 there were 14 instructors and 331 pupils; the total disbursements on account of the institution amounted to $73,632. The institute for the education of the blind is also strictly educational, and is designed for the benefit of those between 9 and 21 years of age. At the close of 1873, 106 pupils were receiving instruction from 11 teachers; the resources of the institute during the year amounted to $42,174, and the expenditures to $39,793. The house of refuge, open to boys not exceeding 16 years of age, comprises a farm of 225 acres, a chair factory, and a tailor shop. The number of inmates at the beginning of 1874 was 216; the total expenditures for the preceding year amounted to $56,244, including $10,497 for buildings and improvements. This institution is conducted on the “family system,” the inmates being divided into families of about 50 each. The plan of the soldiers' orphans' home comprises educational and industrial features. At the close of 1873 the number of inmates was 285; the cost of the institution for the year was $32,448. In the two state prisons of Indiana the convicts are employed in different branches of industry, prominent among which is the manufacture of agricultural implements and railroad cars. The convicts receive regular instruction in the ordinary English branches, and also have the use of a library. The number of convicts in the northern prison at the close of 1873 was 368; the total receipts of the prison for the year were $57,465, of which $50,069 was for labor; the expenditures amounted to $49,743. The average number of convicts in the southern state prison was 395. The ordinary expenses of the prison for the year amounted to $66,806, and the total receipts from convict labor and all other sources to $67,088. Of the 751 convicts in both institutions at the beginning of 1874, 86 had been committed for murder, 18 for manslaughter, 413 for grand larceny, and 21 for forgery; 57 were under sentence for life, and 14 for 21 years. The Indiana reformatory institution for women and girls, which has penal and reformatory departments, was opened in September, 1873. Of the 21 females in the penal department at the beginning of 1874, 5 were under sentence for murder, 1 for manslaughter, 1 for forgery, and the remainder for larceny.—The educational interests of the state are under the general supervision of the state board of education, which comprises the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, the presidents of the state university and the normal school, and the school superintendents of the three largest cities in the state. The more immediate management of the common schools is vested in a state superintendent of public instruction, in county superintendents, and in trustees who have the general charge of educational affairs in cities and towns. The opportunity for obtaining a common school education without charge for tuition is afforded to all persons between the ages of 6 and 21 years; separate schools, however, are provided for negroes, who are not allowed to attend schools designed for white persons. Teachers must be examined and receive certificates. The permanent common school fund of Indiana in 1874 was greater than that of any other state in the Union; it amounted to $8,016,931, which yielded an annual interest of $189,455. This fund consists of a productive portion comprising the congressional township, the saline, the surplus revenue, the bank tax, and the sinking funds; a contingent portion embracing the proceeds of fines, forfeitures, escheats, swamp lands, and taxes on corporations; and a non-productive portion comprising the sixteenth sections (17,882 acres) of the public lands remaining unsold. Besides these sources of revenue, a property tax of 16 cents on the $100 and a poll tax are levied for school purposes. The income from state taxes in 1873 was $1,190,626, besides $530,667 from local taxation. The income from all sources amounted to $2,276,569, being an increase of $165,581 over that of the preceding year. The entire school population in 1872 was 640,332; the total enrollment 465,154, of whom 13,895 were in high schools; and the average attendance 298,851. Schools were open in 9,008 districts, the average length throughout the state being 5¼ months. There were employed 12,056 teachers, of whom a majority were males. The total valuation of school property in 1872 was $9,199,480. The normal school was organized in 1867, and in 1873 had 12 instructors and 356 pupils, of whom 228 were in the normal and 128 in the model school. The full course occupies three years. The state university was opened as a college in 1824, and became a university in 1839. It comprises a collegiate, a medical, and a law department, in each of which tuition is free. A department of military science and civil engineering is connected with the collegiate department. Women are admitted to the collegiate course. In 1874 the university had 28 instructors, of whom 12 were in the medical and 2 in the law department, and 371 pupils, including 108 in the medical and 41 in the law department. The 390,000 acres of land granted by congress to Indiana for the establishment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts have been sold for $212,238, which is to be devoted to the support of Purdue university. This institution was founded at Lafayette by Mr. John Purdue, a resident of that city, who gave $150,000 for the purpose. There are more than 200 acres of land connected with the institution. Among the largest of the institutions of learning not connected with the state are the university of Notre Dame (Roman Catholic) at Notre Dame, St. Joseph co., and the Northwestern Christian university (Disciples') in Indianapolis. The former has a classical and a scientific course of four years each, and a commercial course of two years. It was organized in 1842, and in 1874 had 15 professors, 16 other instructors, and 441 pupils. The Northwestern Christian university, organized in 1854, comprises an academic department which affords a classical and a scientific course, a business, and a law department. In 1873 there were 13 instructors and 265 students. The Indiana Asbury university (Methodist), at Greencastle, has preparatory, collegiate and law courses. (See Greencastle.) Earlham college (Friends') was founded at Richmond in 1859, and in 1873 had in its collegiate and preparatory departments 11 instructors and 222 students, with 3,500 volumes in the library. Other prominent colleges of the state are represented in the following table:

NAME. Location. Date of
 organization. 
 Instructors.   Pupils.  Volumes
 in library. 






Salem college  Bourbon 1870 ...  ....
Wabash college  Crawfordsville  1834 11  231  12,000
Concordia college  Fort Wayne 1850 169  3,000
Fort Wayne college  Fort Wayne 1846 173  ....
Franklin college  Franklin 1872 34  1,000
Hanover college  Hanover 1833 10  134  7,000
Hartsville university  Hartsville 1854 117  500
Howard college  Kokemo 1869 69  ....
Union Christian college   Merom 1858 162  400
Moore's Hill college  Moore's Hill 1854 142  350
St. Meinrad's college  St. Meinrad 1860 52  4,000
Smithson college  Logansport 1871 ..  ..  ....

Special instruction in science is afforded at Purdue university and St. Meinrad's college; in theology at Hartsville university (United Brethren); in law at the Indiana university, the Northwestern Christian college, and the university of Notre Dame; and in medicine by the medical department, in Indianapolis, of the state university. Prominent among institutions for the superior instruction of females are St. Mary's academy at Notre Dame, Logansport female college at Logansport, Moravian seminary for young ladies at Logansport, De Pauw college at New Albany, and the Indianapolis female institute in Indianapolis. According to the census of 1870, the total number of educational institutions in Indiana was 9,073, with 11,652 teachers, of whom 4,974 were females, and 464,477 pupils. The income from all sources for educational purposes amounted to $2,499,511, of which $50,620 was from endowment, $2,126,502 from taxation and public funds, and $322,389 from tuition and other sources. Included in the above were 8,871 public schools, with 11,042 teachers and 446,076 pupils, 16 colleges with 143 teachers and 3,102 pupils, 16 academies with 125 teachers and 3,580 pupils, and 124 private schools with 201 teachers and 6,296 pupils. The total number of libraries was 5,301, containing 1,125,553 volumes; of these, 2,968 with 497,659 volumes were private, and 2,333 with 627,894 other than private, including 20 circulating libraries containing 8,248. The most important libraries are the state library in Indianapolis, which has 15,000 volumes; that of Wabash college, 12,000; university of Notre Dame, 12,000; Whitcomb and college circulating library at Greencastle, 9,000; Hanover college, at Hanover, 7,000; state university at Bloomington, 6,000; and Northwestern Christian university in Indianapolis, 5,000. The census of 1870 reported 293 newspapers and periodicals, having an aggregate circulation of 363,542 and issuing 29,964,984 copies annually. There were 20 daily, with a circulation of 42,300; 3 tri-weekly, with 2,200; 1 semi-weekly, with 350; 233 weekly, with 239,342; 6 semi-monthly, with 9,200; 28 monthly, with 64,150; and 2 bi-monthly, with 6,000. The statistics of churches were as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.  Value of
property.





Baptist, regular 522  476  135,575  $1,047,625
Baptist, other 68  45  16,800  89,700
Christian 455  377  122,755  810,875
Congregational 18  12  4,800  119,900
Episcopal, Protestant 49  38  10,300  492,500
Evangelical Association 47  40  10,925  124,600
Friends 81  76  29,500  263,800
Jewish 1,900  113,000
Lutheran 195  180  62,285  619,600
Methodist Episcopal 1,403  1,121  346,125  3,291,427
Moravian (Unitas Fratrum) 650  5,000
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) 100  4,000
Presbyterian, regular 333  315  116,560  2,006,550
Presbyterian, other 42  42  12,400  71,550
Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed) 500  8,200
Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed) 34  33  8,880  97,300
Roman Catholic 204  201  86,830  2,511,700
Unitarian ...  ......  ......
United Brethren in Christ 184  121  33,975  188,000
Universalist 18  15  6,300  73,400
Unknown (Union) 1,200  3,500




Total 3,698  3,106   1,008,380   $11,942,227

—Indiana originally constituted a part of New France, and subsequently of the Northwest territory. The exact period of its first settlement is not ascertained. In 1702 a party of French Canadians descended the Wabash, and established several posts on its banks, and among others Vincennes. The Indians made little opposition to the new comers. Until 1763, when the country was ceded to the English, nothing is known of the early settlers. By the treaty of cession, however, they were confirmed in their possessions. The treaty of 1783 included Indiana in the United States. In 1788 an Indian war broke out, which caused great distress at Vincennes. In 1791 the Indians were attacked at the mouth of the Tippecanoe by Gen. Wilkinson, and by the subsequent victories of Gen. Wayne a dangerous confederacy was broken up and the tribes were obliged to submit. The whole district now began to enjoy that repose of which it had been for many years deprived. By the treaty of Greenville in 1795 the United States obtained several eligible parcels of land, and settlement began to make considerable progress. On May 7, 1800, Ohio was erected into a separate territory, while all the country W. and N. was included in the new government of Indiana. The territorial government was organized July 4, with William Henry Harrison as governor. In 1805 Michigan was also set off, and in 1809 Illinois, leaving Indiana with its present limits. In all this period, however, the Indians had been troublesome, and greatly impeded settlement. Nevertheless the census of 1810 showed a fair increase, the population in that year amounting to 24,520 souls. In 1811 the general government determined to exert its power against the savages, who, excited and exasperated by the eloquence of Tecumseh, a leader of the Shawnees, and the most extraordinary man that had ever appeared among them, had committed grievous depredations. A force of regulars and militia was assembled at Vincennes and placed under the command of William Henry Harrison, then governor. On Nov. 6 of the same year the governor appeared before Prophetstown or Tippecanoe on the Wabash, and demanded restitution of the property which the Indians had carried off. After a conference it was agreed that hostilities should not commence until next morning, that an amicable arrangement might be made; but in violation of this armistice the Americans were attacked before daybreak by a large body of savages. Gov. Harrison, however, knowing the character of the enemy, had so disposed his troops as not to be taken by surprise. The combat that ensued, though short, was unusually severe; the Indians fought with desperate courage, but could not withstand the superiority of the forces arrayed against them, and the fate of the battle was soon decided. After burning the town and laying waste the surrounding country, the victorious army returned to Vincennes, and not long afterward the tribes sued for peace. The war with England now broke out, and gave a fresh impetus to Indian hostility; but again the savages were overwhelmed, and after the close of the war in 1815 finally ceased to molest or trouble the settlers. In December, 1815, the territorial legislature petitioned congress for admission into the Union, and the privilege of forming a state constitution. A bill for these purposes passed congress in April, 1816; and soon after a convention was called, which on June 29 ensuing adopted the first constitution of Indiana. On Dec. 11, 1816, the state was admitted into the Union. A more rapid immigration ensued, and continued without interruption; and though numbers passed westward into Illinois, the new state retained its share. In 1827 the Erie canal opened an outlet for the produce of the west, and the national road was commenced. Both these circumstances naturally stimulated settlement; and the sales of land so rapidly increased that in the ten years ending in 1830 they amounted to 3,558,221 acres. The population in the same year was 343,031, being an increase of 133.1 per cent. over that of 1820. Now commenced that speculation mania which terminated in the financial revulsion of 1837. In 1832 the legislature incorporated eight stock companies for constructing railroads; in 1833 the middle section of the Wabash and Erie canal was commenced, and in 1834 the state bank with ten branches was incorporated, to which were subsequently added three other branches. The result of these undertakings, and others into which the state entered, was a debt amounting to $14,057,000 and a general bankruptcy. But in the ten years ending in 1840 the population had doubled, and 9,122,688 acres of public land had been disposed of to individuals; but none of the great works had yet been completed. For the next six or seven years little progress was made, and in no one of these years was 100,000 acres of land disposed of. In 1846 the state debt, on which no interest had been paid since 1839, was consolidated and arranged into two classes, the state debt proper and the canal debt; and means were devised for paying interest on the former. Under the influence of this scheme prosperity returned. In 1851 a new constitution was adopted, and in 1853 the legislature passed a free banking law. The question of holding another constitutional convention was submitted to the people in 1859, when the proposition was rejected.