The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Indiana

INDIANA, one of the interior states of the American Union, and the sixth admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 37° 47' and 41° 46' N., and lon. 84° 49' and 88° 2' W.; extreme length N. and S. 276 m., average breadth 140 m.; area, 33,809 sq. m., or 21,637,760 acres. It is bounded N. by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan, E. by Ohio, S. by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, and W. by Illinois, from which it is partly separated by the Wabash.

State Seal of Indiana.

It is divided into 92 counties, viz.: Adams, Allen, Bartholomew, Benton, Blackford, Boone, Brown, Carroll, Cass, Clark, Clay, Clinton, Crawford, Daviess, Dearborn, Decatur, De Kalb, Delaware, Dubois, Elkhart, Fayette, Floyd, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, Gibson, Grant, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Harrison, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, Huntington, Jackson, Jasper, Jay, Jefferson, Jennings, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusko, La Grange, Lake, La Porte, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Martin, Miami, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Noble, Ohio, Orange, Owen, Parke, Perry, Pike, Porter, Posey, Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Ripley, Rush, St. Joseph, Scott, Shelby, Spencer, Starke, Steuben, Sullivan, Switzerland, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Union, Vanderburgh, Vermilion, Vigo, Wabash, Warren, Warrick, Washington, Wayne, Wells, White, Whitley. Indianapolis, the capital, is near the centre of the state. In 1874 there were 27 cities in Indiana: Columbia, with 1,663 inhabitants in 1870; Connersville, 2,496; Evansville, 21,830; Fort Wayne, 17,718; Franklin City, 2,707; Goshen, 3,133; Greencastle, 3,227; Kendallville, 2,164; Indianapolis, 48,244; Jeffersonville, 7,254; Lafayette, 13,506; La Porte, 6,581; Lawrenceburg, 3,159; Logansport, 8,950; Madison, 10,709; Mount Vernon, 2,880; New Albany, 15,396; Peru, 3,617; Richmond, 9,445; Rising Sun, 1,760; Seymour, 2,372; Shelbyville, 2,731; South Bend, 7,206; Terre Haute, 16,103; Valparaiso, 2,765; Vincennes, 5,440; and Wabash City, 2,881. Michigan City is the only lake port of the state. The population in 1800 and at subsequent decennial periods was as follows:

 CENSUS YEARS. White. Free Colored. Slaves. Total. Rank. 1800 5,343 163 135 5,641 20 1810 23,890 393 237 24,520 21 1820 145,758 1,230 190 147,178 18 1830 339,399 3,629 3 343,031 13 1840 678,698 7,165 3 685,866 10 1850 977,154 11,262 .. 988,416 7 1860 1,388,710 11,428 .. 1,350,428 6 1870 1,655,887 24,560 .. 1,680,637 6

Of the total population in 1870, 857,994 were males and 822,643 females; 1,539,163 were of native and 141,474 of foreign birth; and there were 240 Indians. Of the native-born, 1,048,575 were born in the state, 16,598 in Illinois, 3,483 in Iowa, 76,524 in Kentucky, 3,490 in Massachusetts, 5,693 in Michigan, 6,682 in New Jersey, 29,518 in New York, 24,799 in North Carolina, 189,359 in Ohio, 57,291 in Pennsylvania, 12,276 in Tennessee, and 32,489 in Virginia and West Virginia. Of the foreigners, 4,765 were born in British America, 6,363 in France, 78,060 in Germany, 9,945 in England, 28,698 in Ireland, 2,507 in Scotland, 556 in Wales, 873 in Holland, 2,180 in Sweden, and 4,287 in Switzerland. The density of population was 49.71 persons to a square mile. The state contained 320,160 families, with an average of 5.25 persons each, and 318,469 dwellings, with an average of 5.28 persons each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 24.45 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 376,780. There were in the state 567,175 persons from 5 to 18 years of age; the total number of persons attending school was 395,263; 76,634 persons 10 years of age and over were unable to read, and 127,124 could not write. Of the latter, 113,185 were of native and 13,939 of foreign birth; 53,359 were males and 73,765 females; 118,761 were white and 8,258 colored; 11,072 were from 10 to 15 years old, 15,630 from 15 to 21, and 100,422 were 21 and over, of whom 36,331 were white males, 57,651 white females, 3,182 colored males, 3,181 colored females, and 77 Indians. The percentage of illiterates 10 years of age and over to the total population of the same age was 10.61, being 8.71 for males and 12.61 for females. The percentage of illiteracy among male adults was 10.09; females, 16.77. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 4,657, at a cost of $403,521. On June 1, 1870, 3,652 were receiving support, of whom 2,790 were natives, including 2,583 white and 207 colored, and 862 foreigners. There were 1,374 criminals committed during the year. Of the total number (907) in prison June 1, 1870, 755 were of native and 152 of foreign birth; of the natives, 691 were white and 64 colored. The state contained 991 blind, 872 deaf and dumb, 1,504 insane, and 1,360 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (1,197,936), there were engaged in all occupations 459,369 persons; in agriculture, 266,777, including 83,949 laborers, and 181,895 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 80,018, of whom 1,787 were clergymen, 22,542 domestic servants, 34,954 laborers not specified, 1,685 lawyers, 3,613 physicians and surgeons, and 5,018 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 36,517; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 76,057. The number of deaths from all causes was 17,661; from consumption, 2,807, being 1 death from consumption to 6.3 from all causes; from pneumonia, 1,514, being 1 from that disease to 11.7 from all causes; from diphtheria and scarlet fever, 594; from intermittent and remittent fevers, 521; from enteric fever, 1,029; from diarrhœa, dysentery, and enteritis, 1,241.—Indiana is entirely wanting in mountains, and at least two thirds of the surface is level or undulating. It has consequently no watershed, but there are continuous slopes of great extent, and the difference of elevation between the highest land and the Ohio river at the falls is nearly 600 ft., and a considerable difference (about 70 ft.) is observed between the level of the Ohio at the falls and at the mouth of the Wabash. The river hills extend at various distances from and parallel to the course of the Ohio and other streams, and enclose bottom lands which are chiefly rich alluvions and thickly wooded. These hills along the Ohio are generally as high as the highest levels of the interior, often of a rugged and broken aspect, and where cut through by tributaries of the Ohio present much imposing scenery. Behind these a table land spreads out and forms the interior and here every feature is changed; instead of the bottoms, with their forests, the most varied landscape appears—here groves of oak, ash, and other trees, there vast level prairies; and again the surface is undulating, and occasionally rises into hills from 100 to 300 ft. high. For topographical description, however, the state may be divided into the valleys of its rivers. The Ohio valley, including that of the Whitewater, contains about 5,500 sq. m.; this is a limestone region, and was originally clothed with heavy forests. The hills are abrupt and broken, and numerous tributaries of the Ohio break through them. Of this division of the state about two thirds is good farming land, and the residue either too hilly or too sterile for profitable cultivation. White River valley extends from the Wabash centrally through the state to the Ohio line, and covers about 9,000 sq. m. It is almost uniformly level, and heavily timbered, except in the W. parts, where there are large prairies and barrens and ranges of low rugged hills. Limestone beds exist on White river and between its two forks, and are abundant and excellent along the lower part of the river. The soils are of the richest description. Most of the streams are clear and never-failing, and water power is abundant. The Wabash valley is the largest division, and embraces upward of 12,000 sq. m. It interlocks with that of White river, and the E. portion resembles it. It is equally fertile, but less broken. The middle part of the valley has extensive water power. From the river hills of the Ohio to the Wabash the surface is an inclined plane. The valley of the Maumee occupies about 2,000 sq. m. in the N. E., and carries its waters to Lake Erie. The N. and N. W. part of the state, drained by the St. Joseph's, which flows into Lake Michigan, and the Kankakee, a constituent of the Illinois, in its general character is level, mostly prairie; in parts it is sandy, and along the Kankakee swampy. Near Lake Michigan the country has extensive sand hills, which are covered only with stunted and shrivelled pines and burr oaks; but a few miles back from the lake shore a rich agricultural country is found.—The Ohio, the final recipient of the principal streams, borders the state on the south from the Miami to the Wabash, a distance by the river's course of 380 m. Laughery, Indian Kentucky, Silver, Indian Blue, Anderson, Big Pigeon, Little Pigeon, &c., are its principal tributaries from Indiana, but none of them are navigable. The Whitewater joins the Miami 6 m. above its entrance into the Ohio. The Wabash has its head waters in Ohio; at first its course is N. W. to the middle of Huntington co., thence W. S. W. to Williamsport in Warren co., and the remainder of its course S. to the Ohio. Its length is about 550 m., and it has been navigated about 300 m. by steamboats. Its principal affluents are, from the south and east, the Salamonie, Mississinewa, Wildcat, Sugar or Kock, Raccoon, and Patoka rivers; and from the north and west, Little Wabash and Embarras in Illinois, the Vermilion in both states, and in Indiana Tippecanoe, Eel, and Little rivers. White river, the most important of these, falls into the Wabash 100 m. above its mouth; the West fork, its longest branch, rises near the Ohio line, not far from the S. sources of the Wabash and W. constituents of the Miami, and runs in a S. W. direction, receiving in its course Eel river, Fall creek, &c.; and the East fork, the principal feeders of which are Salt, Muscatatuck, Sand, Clifty, Flat Rock, Sugar, and other streams, rises in the S. E. part of the state, and has a W. course to its union with the West fork, the two forming White river proper, 50 in. above its entrance into the Wabash. The St. Joseph's and St. Mary's form the Maumee, which passes into Ohio and to Lake Erie. Another St. Joseph's, with its tributaries the Elkhart, &c., passes into Lake Michigan. The Kankakee, a principal constituent of the Illinois, runs sluggishly through the N. W. counties for 100 m.; extensive marshes everywhere hound its course. The Iroquois or Pickamink rises S. of the Kankakee, runs nearly parallel to it for 50 m., and joins it in Illinois. Deep and Calumet rivers lie near to and S. of Lake Michigan, and in some places are only separated from it by banks of sand. Numerous lakes and ponds are found, principally N. of the Wabash. Several of them have no outlets; they are generally clear, and have sandy shores and bottoms. They seldom exceed a few acres in extent, though several at the head of Tippecanoe river and Turtle creek, and near the city of La Porte, cover a considerable area. The largest, Beaver lake, near the Illinois line in Jasper co., had a surface of 10,000 acres, and on the south was bordered by an extensive marsh; but most of the land has been reclaimed, and the lake itself nearly drained.—The geological survey of Indiana has been several years in progress under the direction of the state geologist, Prof. E. T. Cox, assisted by Professors John Collett, B. C. Hobbs, R. B. Warder, and Dr. G. M. Levette. The third and fourth annual reports, for the years 1871 and 1872, were published in one volume in 1872. The most valuable mineral found in Indiana is coal, which exists here in great abundance, and forms part of the great coal field which extends through Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. The following statement by Prof. Cox shows the extent and character of this important source of wealth: “The measures cover an area of about 6,500 sq. m., in the S. W. part of the state, and extend from Warren co. on the north to the Ohio river on the south, a distance of about 150 m. The following counties lie within its area: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermilion, Vigo, Clay, Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, and a small part of Crawford, Monroe, Putnam, and Montgomery. The coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well marked varieties: caking coal, non-caking or block coal, and cannel coal. The total depth of the measures is from 600 to 800 ft., with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal, though they are not all present throughout the entire area of the field. The seams range from 1 ft. to 11 ft. in thickness, and the field may, from the character of the coal, be divided from north to south into two zones; the western contains the seams of caking coal, and the eastern the non-caking or block coal. There are from three to four workable seams of caking coal, ranging from 3½ to 11 ft. in thickness. At most of the localities where these are being worked, the coal is mined by adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in the state are less than 300 ft., the average depth to win the coal being not over 75 ft. The eastern zone of the coal measures has an area of more than 450 sq. m. It is here that we find the celebrated block coal, a fossil fuel which is used in the raw state for making pig iron. In fact this coal, from its physical structure and freedom from impurities, is peculiarly suited to metallurgical purposes. It is likewise valuable for generating steam and for household uses. There are as many as eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of which are workable, having an average thickness of 4 ft. In some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 40 to 80 ft. deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in blocks weighing a ton or more.” In 1871 there were 24 block coal mines in operation, and about 1,500 tons were mined daily; in 1873 the number of mines had increased to upward of 50, and the daily production to about 5,000 tons. In 1873 eight blast furnaces in Indiana were using the block coal for smelting ores. The quality of the coal, its vicinity to available iron ore beds, together with convenient railroad facilities, give to Indiana marked advantages for the manufacture of iron and steel. (For an analysis of the coal of Indiana, see Coal.) A seam of superior cannel coal is worked in Daviess co.; the vein is 5 ft. thick, the upper 3½ ft. being eannel coal and the remainder a beautiful jet-black caking coal. Peat or turf exists in considerable quantities in the northern part of the state, but, owing to the abundance of wood, is not much used. There are numerous deposits of bog iron ore in the northern part of the state, and clay ironstones and impure carbonates and brown oxides are scattered over the counties embraced in the coal measures. In some places the beds are quite thick, and, though inferior to the rich pure ores of Missouri, will prove valuable for mixing with the latter and aid in making special grades of iron. Indiana possesses some of the finest quarries of building stone in the west; they include both limestone and sandstone. Ganister rock, used for furnace hearths and for lining Bessemer converters, and fire clays, are also found in great abundance. Salt springs exist on the eastern border of the coal formation. Perhaps the most remarkable natural curiosity in Indiana is the Wyandotte cave, 4 m. from Leavenworth, Crawford co., in the southern part of the state, which in many respects rivals the famous Mammoth cave of Kentucky. (See Wyandotte Cave.)—The climate, like that of all the states W. of the Ohio, is liable to frequent and sudden changes. The prevailing winds in winter are from the north and northwest, and in other seasons from the south and southwest, and from the general evenness of the country have a free passage and are in constant motion. The heats of summer are thus modified; but in winter the cold is extreme, though less so than in Illinois. The mean temperature of the year is 52°; that of winter 31°, of spring 51°, of summer 76°, and of autumn 55°. This is nearly the climate of Bordeaux, France, 5° further S. than Indianapolis and on the seaboard. The rainfall is about 38 in. in the year, viz.: 4.97 in winter, 7.79 in spring, 16.92 in summer, and 7.87 in autumn. The earlier fruits blossom in March.—The soil is generally good, and much of it remarkably fertile. The richest lands are found along the Wabash, White, and Whitewater rivers. Few states have so little unavailable land; even its wet and marshy lands are brought under successful cultivation. About one eighth part of the state is prairie land, and about one third is covered with a fine forest. The forests contain all the trees natural to the climate of the middle zone of the Union, but oak and beech preponderate; next in order are the sugar maple, hickory, ash, black walnut, poplar, elm, sycamore, &c.; and the principal undergrowths are dogwood, pawpaw, plum, thorn, persimmon, and crabapple. In most parts oak and beech mast is found in such quantities as to contribute largely to feeding and fattening hogs.—Indiana ranks high as an agricultural state; in the production of wheat in 1870 it ranked next to Illinois and Iowa, and in Indian corn next to Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Missouri. The chief farm productions and live stock, as reported by the federal census in 1870 and the state authorities in 1873, were as follows:  PRODUCTIONS. 1870. 1873. Wheat, bushels 27,747,222 22,149,527 Indian corn 51,094,538 81,185,485 Rye 457,463 333,153 Oats 8,590,409 11,434,628 Barley 356,262 522,943 Buckwheat 80,231 ...... Peas and beans 35,526 ...... Potatoes 5,549,749 8,412,159 Grass and clover seed 78,545 137,747 Fruit ...... 3,473,161 Flaxseed 409,931 389,179 Flax, pounds 37,771 ...... Hemp, tons 22 18,794 Hay 1,076,768 825,477 Tobacco, pounds 9,325,892 12,377,182 Wool 5,029,023 2,228,437 Hops 63,884 29,729 Beef ...... 3,329,067 Bacon ...... 40,716,539 Pork in bulk ...... 30,913,745 Lard ...... 11,391,432 Butter 29,915,385 ...... Cheese 283,807 ...... Milk, gallons sold 936,983 ...... maple sugar, pounds 1,332,332 302,041 Maple molasses, gallons 227,880 57,675 Sorghum molasses 2,026,212 501,363 Honey, pounds 395,278 ...... Wax 12,049 ...... Wine, gallons 19,479 827,480 Cider ...... 1,097,019 Vinegar ...... 385,835 Horses, number 497,833 514,438 Mules and asses 43,259 54,307 Milch cows 393,736 ...... Working oxen 14,088 ...... Other cattle 618,360 ...... Sheep 1,612,680 1,235,874 Swine 1,872,239 2,999,139 Cattle ...... 1,211,246 The returns of live stock for 1870 include only animals on farms, while in 1873 the entire number in the state is returned. According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 10,104,279 acres of improved land, 7,189,334 of woodland, and 826,035 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 161,289, including 55,614 containing 20 and under 50 acres; 52,614, 50 and under 100; 29,433, 100 and under 500; 1,004,500 and under 1,000; and 76, 1,000 and over. The cash value of farms was$634,804,189; of farming implements and machinery, $17,676,591; wages paid during the year, including value of board,$9,675,348; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $122,914,302; value of orchard products,$2,858,086; of produce of market gardens, $486,477; of forest products,$2,645,679; of home manufactures, $605,639; of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter,$30,246,962; of all live stock, $83,776,762. In 1873 there were 6,162,157 acres in cultivation, of which 1,902,599 were devoted to wheat, 2,627,980 to Indian corn, 624,795 to oats, 985,529 to meadow, and 4,511,775 to pasture and woodland. The value of slaughtered animals was$3,938,754. There were 570,382 tons of coal mined, and 1,167,661 bushels of lime made.—Indiana has no direct foreign commerce, but it has a vast domestic and inter-state trade by means of its navigable waters and magnificent systems of railroads and canals. Its geographical position is such that the whole land commerce between the manufacturing states of the east and the country west of the Mississippi must pass through its territory. Evansville is a United States port of delivery. In 1873 there were enrolled here 75 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 11,474. In 1845 there were 30 m. of railroad in Indiana; in 1855, 1,406; in 1865, 2,217; in 1870, 3,177; and in 1873, 3,544. Of the 92 counties of the state, all but five were in the last mentioned year traversed by railroads. The following table exhibits the railroads of the state in 1873, with their termini; also the assessed value, including main and side track and rolling stock, as reported by the state board of equalization:

CORPORATIONS. TERMINI. Miles
completed
in the
state in
1873.
Miles between
termini when
different
from preceding.
Total assessment.

Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Indianapolis  Hamilton, O., and Indianapolis 77  98
 $551,226 160,665 147,975 32,875 429,607 (83 m.) 107,713 262,386 (57 m.) 1,525,680 428,960 852,540 292,847 (43 m.) 423,740 598,661 (104 m.) 513,060 77,250 48,787 971,736 1,651,200 1,077,518 (144 m.) 1,051,282 592,354 1,441,728 334,812 445,098 316,758 ....... 4,112,664 618,500 (110 m.) 1,045,162 67,641 1,096,316 ....... 3,306,080 4,909,155 ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... 204,490 1,586,665 3,046,328 368,466 Cincinnati, Lafayette, and Chicago Lafayette and Kankuken, Ill. 21 75 Cincinnati and Martinsville Fairland and Martinsville 39 ... Cincinnati, Richmond, and Chicago Cincinnati, O., and Richmond 42 Cincinnati, Richmond, and Fort Wayne Richmond and Fort Wayne 92 ... Cincinnati and Terre Haute Cincinnati. O., and Terre Haute 20 180 Cincinnati, Wabash, and Michigan Anderson to Michigan state line 81 132 Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis (Indianapolis division) Galion, O., and Indianapolis 84 203 Detroit, Eel River, and Illinois Butler and Logansport 82 92 Evansville and Crawfordsville Evansville and Terre Haute 109 ... Evansville, Terre Haute, and Chicago Terre Haute and Danville 55 ... Fort Wayne, Jackson, and Saginaw Jackson, Mich., and Fort Wayne 58 100 Fort Wayne, Muncie, and Cincinnati Fort Wayne and Connersville 108 ... Grand Rapids and Indiana Fort Wayne and Traverse City, Mich. 51 289 Indiana North and South Oxford and Newburg 13 190 Indiana and Illinois Central Indianapolis and Decatur, Ill. 152 Indianapolis, Bloomington, and Western Indianapolis and Pekin, Ill. 78 202 Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette Cincinnati, O., and Lafayette 158 178 Indianapolis, Peru, and Chicago Indianapolis and Michigan City 161 ... Indianapolis and St. Louis Indianapolis and St. Louis, Mo 78 261 Indianapolis and Vincennes Indianapolis and Vincennes 116 ... Jeffersonville, Madison, and Indianapolis Louisville, Ky., and Indianapolis 110 ...  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Columbus to Madison 45 ... Columbus to Cambridge City 65 ... Lafayette, Muncie and Bloomington Muncie to Illinois state line 36 115 Lake Erie, Evansville, and Southwestern Evansville and Bellefontaine, O. 17 300 Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Buffalo, N. Y., and Chicago, Ill. 167 539 Logansport, Crawfordsville, and Southwestern Logansport and Terre Haute 115 ... Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago New Albany and Michigan City 288 ... Louisville, New Albany, and St. Louis Air Line New Albany and Mt. Vernon, Ill. 13 150 Michigan Central Detroit, Mich., and Chicago, Ill. 42 285 Joliet and Northern Indiana Lake Station to Joliet, Ill. 15 44 Ohio and Mississippi Cincinnati, O., and St. Louis, Mo. 225 340 Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis .. ... ...  ⁠Divisions ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\\\ \ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Columbus, O., to Indianapolis 73 188 Columbus, O., to Chicago, Ill. 196 314 Union to Logansport 91 ... Logansport to Illinois line 59 ... Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Pittsburgh, Pa., and Chicago, Ill. 156 468 St. Louis and Southeastern St. Louis, Mo., and Nashville, Tenn. 28 316 Terre Haute and Indianapolis Indianapolis to Illinois line 79 ... Toledo, Wabash, and Western Toledo, O., and Camp Point, Ill. 166 454 White Water Valley Harrison, O., and Hagerstown 62 ... The Wabash and Erie canal, the longest in the United States, connecting the Maumee river at Toledo with Evansville on the Ohio, 467 m., has 374 m. of its course in Indiana, and passes through Fort Wayne, Huntington, Wabash, Peru, Logansport, Delphi, Lafayette, Attica, Covington, Montezuma, Terre Haute, Bloomfleld, and Petersburg. The Whitewater canal extends from Lawrenceburg on the Ohio to Hagerstown, 75 m., and takes in its course Brooksville, Connersville, and Cambridge. These canals are little used now. In 1873 the state contained 6,943 miles of telegraph, the assessed value of which was$807,874. There were 125 foreign insurance companies doing business in the state; their gross receipts for the six months ending July 1, 1873, amounted to $1,169,413; losses paid,$608,950; tax paid, $17,498. There were 92 national banks, with an aggregate paid-in capital of$17,611,800, and an outstanding circulation of $14,536,015. The bank circulation of the state was 14,706,415, being$8 75 per capita and 1.2 per cent. of the wealth of the state; ratio of circulation to capital, 81.9. The total number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 11,847, using 2,881 steam engines of 76,851 horse power and 1,090 water wheels of 23,518 horse power, and employing 58,852 hands, of whom 54,412 were males above 16 years of age, 2,272 females above 15, and 2,168 youths. The capital invested amounted to $52,052,425; wages paid during the year,$18,366,780; value of materials consumed, $63,135,492; of products,$108,617,278. The chief industries are exhibited in the following table:

 INDUSTRIES. No. of establishments. Steam engines, horsepower. Water wheels, horsepower. Hands employed. Capital. Wages. Materials. Products. Agricultural implements 124 860 165 1,268 $1,622,769$484,526 $951,714$2,128,794 Boots and shoes 988 .... .... 2,702 842,497 651,750 1,094,977 2,699,114 Carpentering and building 095 216 .... 2,893 541,720 758,847 1,501,329 3,448,959 Carriages and wagons 770 380 285 3,325 2,196,485 1,034,146 1,276,233 3,616,068 Cars, freight and passenger 10 376 .... 1,403 625,833 834,124 1,639,340 2,577,726 Clothing, men's 229 .... .... 1,531 760,309 498,850 1,289,782 2,261,374 Cooperage 357 253 .... 1,868 611,037 584,241 950,743 1,921,878 Flouring and grist-mill products 962 16,676 13,667 3,214 2,346,373 896,717 20,602,231 25,371,322 Furniture, not specified 319 1,500 512 2,780 8,515,627 1,110,660 1,267,081 3,463,270 Iron, forged and rolled 9 3,250 .... 989 l,588,000 529,209 1,984,668 2,845,005 Iron, pigs 4 1,725 .... 189 425,000 159,400 825,435 1,191,834 Iron, castings, not specified 96 966 253 949 1,281,532 470,733 1,619,851 2,592,908 Leather, tanned 197 535 5 514 875,740 142,468 905,347 1,310,242 Leather, curried 156 147 .... 319 303,810 84,981 909,778 1,151,307 Liquors, distilled 36 703 30 280 658,838 126,150 1,358,196 2,038,420 Liquors, malt 99 358 35 443 1,117,400 175,730 627,576 1,315,116 Lumber, planed 85 1,783 128 638 796,677 242,579 795,051 1,374,104 Lumber, sawed 1,861 34,696 5,303 9,446 5,975,746 1,901,612 5,563,985 12,324,755 Machinery, not specified 62 761 127 1,148 1,047,376 628,774 652,089 1,493,694 Machinery, st'm engines and boilers 33 632 .... 1,006 1,352,716 578,653 1,369,104 2,387,330 Pork packed 11 179 .... 452 1,598,000 92,862 2,262,737 2,780,021 Saddlery and harness 436 .... .... 1,333 625,680 321,212 806,903 1,654,341 Sash, doors, and blinds 59 1,212 165 640 663,650 291,856 536,004 1,089,404 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 322 .... .... 996 751,005 275,017 620,560 1,293,206 Woollen goods 146 2,718 1,138 2,895 8,770,513 717,176 2,595,604 4,212,787

The constitution of Indiana is dated Feb. 10, 1851, and superseded that of June 29, 1816. Every male citizen 21 years of age, and who has resided in the state six months, possesses the right of voting. The general assembly consists of a senate of 50 members elected for four years, one half every second year, and a house of representatives of 100 members elected for two years. The legislative sessions are biennial, beginning on the Thursday after the first Monday of January in odd years. Members of the legislature receive $8 a day during the session. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected for four years; the former has a salary of$8,000 a year. The other chief state officers are the secretary of state, salary $2,000; auditor,$2,500; treasurer, $3,000; attorney general,$3,000; and superintendent of public instruction, $2,000. These officials are elected for a term of two years. A majority vote of each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the veto of the executive. The state election is held on the second Tuesday of October in even years. The judicial power is vested in a supreme, a circuit, and a superior court. The supreme court consists of five judges, who are elected by the people for a term of six years, and receive an annual salary of$4,000 each. The state Is divided into five supreme judicial districts and 38 circuit districts. Each of the 38 circuit judges receives an annual salary of $2,500; they are elected by the people for a term of six years. A superior court of three judges elected for four years may be established in any county containing a city of 40,000 inhabitants; the only one yet established is in Marion co., of which Indianapolis is the chief city. Special criminal circuit courts are provided for seven counties of the state: Allen, Floyd, Clark, Marion, Tippecanoe, Vanderburgh, and Vigo. The officers elected by the people in each county are, a clerk of circuit court, auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner, and surveyor—the first three for four years, and the others for two years. Justices of the peace are elected in each township for four years. Indiana is represented in congress by two senators and 13 representatives, and has therefore 15 votes in the electoral college. The system of granting divorces in Indiana, which had attracted wide attention on account of its elasticity, was amended in 1873 and made somewhat more stringent. The causes of divorce under the new law are: 1, adultery, except in certain specified cases; 2, impotency existing at the time of the marriage; 3, abandonment for two years; 4, cruel and inhuman treatment of either party by the other; 5, habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family; 6, the failure of the husband to make reasonable provision for his family for a period of two years; 7, the conviction of either party subsequent to the marriage, in any country, of an infamous crime. Divorces may be decreed by the circuit or superior court on petition of a person who is and has been a bona fide resident of the state for the preceding two years, and of the county for at least six months; such residence to be proved by the oath of the petitioner and the testimony of at least two witnesses who are resident freeholders and householders of the state. Murder, treason, and killing in a duel are capital offences, punishable with death. Marriage between negroes and white persons is declared a misdemeanor, the penalty of which is imprisonment from one to ten years. By act of 1873 women are declared eligible to any office the election or appointment to which is vested in the general assembly or the governor. The state debt on Nov. 1, 1873, was$4,898,657, including $3,904,733 domestic and$994,030 foreign debt. The receipts into the state treasury during the preceding year were $2,875,449, and the disbursements, including several extraordinary items,$3,445,298. Of the receipts, $438,191 were from state revenue,$1,372,993 from the common school fund, $190,603 from public institutions, and$1,524,545 from miscellaneous sources. The most important items of expenditure were $1,361,341 for common schools,$1,193,442 on account of public debt, $352,576 for benevolent institutions,$296,180 for reformatory institutions, $289,934 for ordinary expenses, and$278,373 for legislative expenses. The state tax was 15 cents on the $100 for general purposes, and 16 cents for schools. The total valuation of real and personal property was$279,032,209 in 1856, $578,484,109 in 1866,$662,283,178 in 1870, and $950,467,854 in 1873, the last including personal property to the extent of$247,146,331.—The public institutions supported entirely or in part by the state are the hospital for the insane, the institution for the deaf and dumb, and the institution for the blind in Indianapolis, house of refuge at Plainfield, soldiers' home at Knightstown, northern state prison at Michigan City, southern state prison at Jeffersonville, reformatory institution for women and girls in Indianapolis, normal school in Terre Haute, state university at Bloomington, and agricultural college at Lafayette. The state hospital for the insane, which was opened in 1848, had 474 inmates at the close of 1873; during the year 320 were admitted and 314 discharged. The current expenditures for the year amounted to $155,470. The institution for educating the deaf and dumb is open to all persons of that class in the state between the ages of 10 and 21 years, free of charge for board and tuition. It is not an asylum, but an educational institution, and comprises a manual labor department. In 1873 there were 14 instructors and 331 pupils; the total disbursements on account of the institution amounted to$73,632. The institute for the education of the blind is also strictly educational, and is designed for the benefit of those between 9 and 21 years of age. At the close of 1873, 106 pupils were receiving instruction from 11 teachers; the resources of the institute during the year amounted to $42,174, and the expenditures to$39,793. The house of refuge, open to boys not exceeding 16 years of age, comprises a farm of 225 acres, a chair factory, and a tailor shop. The number of inmates at the beginning of 1874 was 216; the total expenditures for the preceding year amounted to $56,244, including$10,497 for buildings and improvements. This institution is conducted on the “family system,” the inmates being divided into families of about 50 each. The plan of the soldiers' orphans' home comprises educational and industrial features. At the close of 1873 the number of inmates was 285; the cost of the institution for the year was $32,448. In the two state prisons of Indiana the convicts are employed in different branches of industry, prominent among which is the manufacture of agricultural implements and railroad cars. The convicts receive regular instruction in the ordinary English branches, and also have the use of a library. The number of convicts in the northern prison at the close of 1873 was 368; the total receipts of the prison for the year were$57,465, of which $50,069 was for labor; the expenditures amounted to$49,743. The average number of convicts in the southern state prison was 395. The ordinary expenses of the prison for the year amounted to $66,806, and the total receipts from convict labor and all other sources to$67,088. Of the 751 convicts in both institutions at the beginning of 1874, 86 had been committed for murder, 18 for manslaughter, 413 for grand larceny, and 21 for forgery; 57 were under sentence for life, and 14 for 21 years. The Indiana reformatory institution for women and girls, which has penal and reformatory departments, was opened in September, 1873. Of the 21 females in the penal department at the beginning of 1874, 5 were under sentence for murder, 1 for manslaughter, 1 for forgery, and the remainder for larceny.—The educational interests of the state are under the general supervision of the state board of education, which comprises the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, the presidents of the state university and the normal school, and the school superintendents of the three largest cities in the state. The more immediate management of the common schools is vested in a state superintendent of public instruction, in county superintendents, and in trustees who have the general charge of educational affairs in cities and towns. The opportunity for obtaining a common school education without charge for tuition is afforded to all persons between the ages of 6 and 21 years; separate schools, however, are provided for negroes, who are not allowed to attend schools designed for white persons. Teachers must be examined and receive certificates. The permanent common school fund of Indiana in 1874 was greater than that of any other state in the Union; it amounted to $8,016,931, which yielded an annual interest of$189,455. This fund consists of a productive portion comprising the congressional township, the saline, the surplus revenue, the bank tax, and the sinking funds; a contingent portion embracing the proceeds of fines, forfeitures, escheats, swamp lands, and taxes on corporations; and a non-productive portion comprising the sixteenth sections (17,882 acres) of the public lands remaining unsold. Besides these sources of revenue, a property tax of 16 cents on the $100 and a poll tax are levied for school purposes. The income from state taxes in 1873 was$1,190,626, besides $530,667 from local taxation. The income from all sources amounted to$2,276,569, being an increase of $165,581 over that of the preceding year. The entire school population in 1872 was 640,332; the total enrollment 465,154, of whom 13,895 were in high schools; and the average attendance 298,851. Schools were open in 9,008 districts, the average length throughout the state being 5¼ months. There were employed 12,056 teachers, of whom a majority were males. The total valuation of school property in 1872 was$9,199,480. The normal school was organized in 1867, and in 1873 had 12 instructors and 356 pupils, of whom 228 were in the normal and 128 in the model school. The full course occupies three years. The state university was opened as a college in 1824, and became a university in 1839. It comprises a collegiate, a medical, and a law department, in each of which tuition is free. A department of military science and civil engineering is connected with the collegiate department. Women are admitted to the collegiate course. In 1874 the university had 28 instructors, of whom 12 were in the medical and 2 in the law department, and 371 pupils, including 108 in the medical and 41 in the law department. The 390,000 acres of land granted by congress to Indiana for the establishment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts have been sold for $212,238, which is to be devoted to the support of Purdue university. This institution was founded at Lafayette by Mr. John Purdue, a resident of that city, who gave$150,000 for the purpose. There are more than 200 acres of land connected with the institution. Among the largest of the institutions of learning not connected with the state are the university of Notre Dame (Roman Catholic) at Notre Dame, St. Joseph co., and the Northwestern Christian university (Disciples') in Indianapolis. The former has a classical and a scientific course of four years each, and a commercial course of two years. It was organized in 1842, and in 1874 had 15 professors, 16 other instructors, and 441 pupils. The Northwestern Christian university, organized in 1854, comprises an academic department which affords a classical and a scientific course, a business, and a law department. In 1873 there were 13 instructors and 265 students. The Indiana Asbury university (Methodist), at Greencastle, has preparatory, collegiate and law courses. (See Greencastle.) Earlham college (Friends') was founded at Richmond in 1859, and in 1873 had in its collegiate and preparatory departments 11 instructors and 222 students, with 3,500 volumes in the library. Other prominent colleges of the state are represented in the following table:

 NAME. Location. Date of organization. Instructors. Pupils. Volumes in library. Salem college Bourbon 1870 9 ... .... Wabash college Crawfordsville 1834 11 231 12,000 Concordia college Fort Wayne 1850 6 169 3,000 Fort Wayne college Fort Wayne 1846 7 173 .... Franklin college Franklin 1872 4 34 1,000 Hanover college Hanover 1833 10 134 7,000 Hartsville university Hartsville 1854 9 117 500 Howard college Kokemo 1869 4 69 .... Union Christian college Merom 1858 8 162 400 Moore's Hill college Moore's Hill 1854 5 142 350 St. Meinrad's college St. Meinrad 1860 9 52 4,000 Smithson college Logansport 1871 .. .. ....

Special instruction in science is afforded at Purdue university and St. Meinrad's college; in theology at Hartsville university (United Brethren); in law at the Indiana university, the Northwestern Christian college, and the university of Notre Dame; and in medicine by the medical department, in Indianapolis, of the state university. Prominent among institutions for the superior instruction of females are St. Mary's academy at Notre Dame, Logansport female college at Logansport, Moravian seminary for young ladies at Logansport, De Pauw college at New Albany, and the Indianapolis female institute in Indianapolis. According to the census of 1870, the total number of educational institutions in Indiana was 9,073, with 11,652 teachers, of whom 4,974 were females, and 464,477 pupils. The income from all sources for educational purposes amounted to $2,499,511, of which$50,620 was from endowment, $2,126,502 from taxation and public funds, and$322,389 from tuition and other sources. Included in the above were 8,871 public schools, with 11,042 teachers and 446,076 pupils, 16 colleges with 143 teachers and 3,102 pupils, 16 academies with 125 teachers and 3,580 pupils, and 124 private schools with 201 teachers and 6,296 pupils. The total number of libraries was 5,301, containing 1,125,553 volumes; of these, 2,968 with 497,659 volumes were private, and 2,333 with 627,894 other than private, including 20 circulating libraries containing 8,248. The most important libraries are the state library in Indianapolis, which has 15,000 volumes; that of Wabash college, 12,000; university of Notre Dame, 12,000; Whitcomb and college circulating library at Greencastle, 9,000; Hanover college, at Hanover, 7,000; state university at Bloomington, 6,000; and Northwestern Christian university in Indianapolis, 5,000. The census of 1870 reported 293 newspapers and periodicals, having an aggregate circulation of 363,542 and issuing 29,964,984 copies annually. There were 20 daily, with a circulation of 42,300; 3 tri-weekly, with 2,200; 1 semi-weekly, with 350; 233 weekly, with 239,342; 6 semi-monthly, with 9,200; 28 monthly, with 64,150; and 2 bi-monthly, with 6,000. The statistics of churches were as follows:

 DENOMINATIONS. Organizations. Edifices. Sittings. Value ofproperty. Baptist, regular 522 476 135,575 $1,047,625 Baptist, other 68 45 16,800 89,700 Christian 455 377 122,755 810,875 Congregational 18 12 4,800 119,900 Episcopal, Protestant 49 38 10,300 492,500 Evangelical Association 47 40 10,925 124,600 Friends 81 76 29,500 263,800 Jewish 5 4 1,900 113,000 Lutheran 195 180 62,285 619,600 Methodist Episcopal 1,403 1,121 346,125 3,291,427 Moravian (Unitas Fratrum) 2 2 650 5,000 New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) 1 1 100 4,000 Presbyterian, regular 333 315 116,560 2,006,550 Presbyterian, other 42 42 12,400 71,550 Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed) 2 2 500 8,200 Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed) 34 33 8,880 97,300 Roman Catholic 204 201 86,830 2,511,700 Unitarian 1 ... ...... ...... United Brethren in Christ 184 121 33,975 188,000 Universalist 18 15 6,300 73,400 Unknown (Union) 4 5 1,200 3,500 ⁠Total 3,698 3,106 1,008,380$11,942,227