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The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Sweden, Language and Literature of

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SWEDEN, Language and Literature of. The Swedish is one of the Scandinavian tongues, and as such belongs to the Germanic (or Teutonic) branch of the family of the Indo-European languages. (See Germanic Races and Languages.) Though Old Norse proper was the speech of the whole Scandinavian peninsula and of Denmark until the 11th century, its dialects varied considerably even in the most primitive times, and out of one or more of those ancient dialects the modern Swedish was developed. The change was so slow that the Icelandic lays and sagas were still understood at the Swedish courts as late as the 14th century. (See Iceland, Language and Literature of.) In its earlier stages the Swedish was influenced by the German through the commercial connection of Sweden with the Hanseatic towns, by the Latin through the Catholic priesthood and the monastic institutions, and by the Danish through the political union of Sweden and Denmark subsequent to the pact of Calmar (1397). The reformation again subjected it to German influences, but it was less affected by them than was the Danish. The language was greatly purified and a multitude of foreign vocables driven out by the efforts of the zealous Icelandic scholars of the latter half of the 17th and first quarter of the 18th century. But later in the last century the French tastes prevalent at the court and in the literature introduced a large number of Gallic words, many of which, however, have been since superseded by genuine Scandinavian derivatives. Several dialects are now spoken. In the northern provinces the approximation to the Old Norse or Icelandic forms is much more marked than in the southern, where Danish and German influences have been felt; the southern dialects of Scania and Blekinge have great similarity to the Danish, and that of Dalecarlia presents the greatest departure from the written language, while that of Södermanland approaches it the nearest. Swedish is also the language of the educated classes, and partly of the press, in the Russian grand duchy of Finland.—The Swedish alphabet has 28 letters, the same as in English, with the omission of w (in Swedish formerly the equivalent of v, by which it is now generally replaced) and the addition of ä, å, ö. Formerly the German character was mostly used in Swedish works, but now the Latin character prevails, though the former is still sometimes to be found. A letter peculiar to the Swedish is å, which is pronounced almost like the English o in note. The vowels a, e, i, ä, and ö are pronounced as in German; o has two sounds, either similar to that of the English o in move, but intermediate between o and u, or equivalent to the English a in fall. The sound of u is intermediate between the German u and ü. Y is pronounced almost like the German ü. G before e, i, y, ä, ö, has a sound like the English y in you. J has the same sound. D, g, h, and l before j, and h and f before v, are mute. K before e, i, y, ä, ö, is soft and pronounced like ch in much. Sk before the same letters, and the combinations skj, sj, stj, are pronounced like the English sh. The indefinite article en (masc. and fem.) and ett (neut.) is placed before the noun; as en häst, a horse, ett bord, a table. The definite article is den in the masculine and feminine, det in the neuter, and de in the plural for all genders; but it is also expressed by only adding in the singular number en or n to masculine and feminine substantives, and et or t to the neuter, and in the plural ne, na, a, en; or, thirdly, both these ways may be combined, as den mannen, the man, det bordet, the table, de hästarne, the horses. Substantives have a distinct case ending only in the genitive, which is formed by the addition of s. The plural of substantives is formed by adding or, ar, er, or en; and in some words the singular and plural are alike. The adjectives are formed after two declensions, the first of which has a separate form for the neuter gender, while the second has only one form for all the three genders. The second person singular pronoun is used in conversation only among intimates or when addressing inferiors; otherwise the title of the person addressed, or Herr (sir, Mr.), Fru (madam), or Mamsell or Fröken (miss), with the verb in the third person, must be used; thus: Have you seen the book? Har Herrn (Has the Mr.) sett boken? Verbs have a strong and a weak form of conjugation, and two simple tenses, present and imperfect. The passive is formed by adding s to the active; as, att skära, to cut, at skäras, to be cut; jag kallar, I call, jag kallas, I am called. Throughout the verbs the singular is the same in all three persons; in the plural the first and third are alike, and the second ends in en. Among the best grammars of the language are those of Rydqvist, Svenska Språkets Lagar (4 vols., Stockholm, 1850-'73); Strömborg, Svensk Språklara (Stockholm, 1858); Funk, Praktischer Lehrgang zur schnellen und leichten Erlernung der schwedischen Sprache (Leipsic, 1872); and May, “A Practical Grammar of the Swedish Language” (4th ed., Stockholm, 1873). Among the best lexicons are Dalin's (2 vols., Stockholm, 1850-'54), and especially Kindblad's (3 vols., Stockholm, 1840-'73).—Literature. The literary history of Sweden has been very conveniently divided into six periods. I. 1250 to 1520. The earliest writings extant in the Swedish language are the ancient provincial laws, of which the oldest compilation, that of the province of Westergötland, was probably made about the middle of the 13th century. The poetical spirit of the nation was first developed in the Kämpavisor, or heroic ballads, and a little later in the Riddarvisor, or chivalric ballads. Of these several collections have been edited; a few of them may perhaps be ascribed to the latter part of the 13th century, but the greater part of them belong to the 14th and 15th centuries. Of greater influence upon the written language were the romances of chivalry, mostly translations and imitations of those then popular in central Europe. As many of them were translated between 1300 and 1312 by order of Euphemia, queen of Norway, they are collectively called Drottning Euphemias Visor, “Queen Euphemia's Songs,” though many are in prose. The only noteworthy productions of the 14th century are De stora och de gamla Krönikarna, “The Great and the Old Chronicles,” narrating the leading events of Swedish history; a translation of the life of St. Anscarius, and a “Legend of the Nun Elisif,” by Bishop Hermanni; some lyrics composed by Bishop Thomas; the “Revelations” of St. Brigitta, abbess of Wadstena, and her daughter's Sjellina Tröst, “Soul's Trust,” a paraphrase of a Latin treatise. The literary monuments of the 15th century are principally the Codex Vadstenensis, a collection of legends, essays, letters, and diaries, made by the nuns and monks of Wadstena; an anonymous judicial treatise, Domarereglorna, “Rules for Judges;” and a curious political work, Om Konunga- och Höfdinga-styrelsen, “On the Government of Kings and Rulers,” based upon the book of an obscure Latin author, Ægidius Romanus. Printing was introduced into Stockholm in 1483, the first book printed being a collection of fables styled Dialogus Creaturarum Moralisatus. II. 1520 to 1600. The religious contests of the 16th century gave a theological or rather polemical character to almost the entire literature. Two brothers, Olaus Petri (1497-1552) and Laurentius Petri (1499-1573), are almost the only literary representatives of this period; they made translations of the Bible, wrote chronicles, and composed verses. A liturgy known as Rödboken, the “Red Book,” and other minor Roman Catholic productions, called forth a mass of unimportant polemical writings. All the prose and poetry of this period deserving of mention are some chronicles of the reign of Gustavus Vasa by R. Ludviksson (died 1594), P. Svart (died 1562), and S. Elofsson; a few hymns translated from the German, and some popular ballads; a dull religious drama, Judas Redivivus, by Rondelitius; some hymns and a love song by King Eric XIV.; and a Visa, or lay, by J. af Hoja (died 1535). III. 1600 to 1718. The learned foreigners who flocked to the court of Christina, among them Descartes, Bochart, the younger Heinsius, Gronovius, Pufendorf, and Scheffer, gave an impetus to higher culture in Sweden; but as they wrote in Latin, they did little for the development of the vernacular literature. The investigations of the Icelandic literary monuments by Olof Verelius (1618-'82), Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), and Johan Peringskjöld (1654-1720), causing the publication of Icelandic texts, principally the Eddas, were of more importance in this respect. The historical writings of Eric Tegel (died 1638), A. Girs (died 1639), Widekindi (1620-'97), Werwing (died 1697), and Adlerfeldt (1671-1709) exhibit a considerable improvement in the use of language, though they can hardly claim to be much more than heavy compilations of facts and materials. The continued religious controversies, at this time between Lutheranism and Calvinism, called into the field but few theologians who wrote in any language but Latin. The exegetical works and ecclesiastical histories, among which those of Paulinus (died 1646), Rudbeckius (1581-1646), and Winstrup (died 1679) stand prominent for theological learning, were also written in Latin, as well as the works that appeared on other subjects of scientific research. In jurisprudence the names of M. Vexionius and J. Stjernhök (1596-1675) are well known; in geography and travels, Count E. Dahlberg (1625-1703) published a Svecia Antigua et Hodierna, with 353 maps and engravings of Swedish towns and castles; in classical philology, Gezelius, Lagerlöf, and Freinshemius distinguished themselves; and in botany, Rudbeckius paved the way for Linnæus. But the progress made in the literary use of the vernacular is almost wholly due to the few who attempted romance and poetry. In poetry Georg Stjernhjelm (1598-1672) held the foremost place. His most complete poetical work is Hercules, a sort of didactic epic in hexameters, exhibiting large imaginative power and much poetic skill. Of his masques the best is Den fangne Cupido, “The Captive Cupid.” Stjernhjelm was the first writer of sonnets in Swedish. The drama consisted generally of dull imitations of Olaus Petri and Rondelitius, the chief writers being the historian Messenius, who attempted to exhibit the whole of Swedish history in a series of dramas, S. P. Brask (1613-'68), and A. J. Prytz (1590-1655). More classically dramatic in form, but scarcely better in style, are the Rebecca of J. Beronius and the Rosimunda of U. Hjärne, while but little more praise can be bestowed upon the dramatic allegories of J. P. Chronander. The lyric writers may be divided into the Italian and the German school. To the former belonged G. Dahlstjerna (1658-1709), author of the Kungaskald, a half heroic, half elegiac poem in ottave rime on Charles XI., and of an unsuccessful translation of Guarini's Pastor fido; and G. Rosenhane (1619-'84), whose longest metrical attempt, Venerid, is a collection of 100 sonnets. The chief representatives of the German school were S. Columbus (1642-'79), whose lyrics and pastorals are now nearly forgotten; L. Johansson (died 1674), whose Helicons Blomster, “Flowers from Helicon,” published under the pseudonyme of Lucidor, is a collection of epithalamiums, elegies, and erotic songs, which are less remarkable than his hymns, and P. Lagerlöf (1648-'99), author of a love song of great popularity in its day. The many-sided Spegel, some of whose hymns are worthy of mention, wrote two heavy and monotonous poems, borrowing his titles from the two epics of Milton. C. Arosell is known as the author of a volume of Ofverskrifter, or epigrams, a few of which are of merit. IV. 1718 to 1772. These years embrace a time of great literary activity. The natural sciences, under the influence of the world-famous Linné or Linnæus, occupy the first place. (See Linnæus.) That great naturalist was surrounded by a crowd of pupils, a large number of whom became celebrated; among them P. Forskal (l736-'63), who undertook a scientific journey to Egypt and Arabia, and whose researches were published by Niebuhr; and C. Bjerkander and J. G. Wahlbom, who illustrated the flora of northern Europe. P. Artedi (l705-'35) wrote a treatise on ichthyology, which Linnæus edited in 1738. To physiology belong the Œconomia Regni Animalis and Regnum Animale of Swedenborg (1688-1772). The entomological works of C. F. de Geer (1720-'78), in French, are still esteemed. Eminent in chemistry were Torbern Olof Bergman (l735-'84), who laid the foundation for the science of crystallography; A. F. Cronstedt (1722-'65), the discoverer of nickel; and J. G. Wallerius (l709-'85). Much attention was paid to mining by M. von Bromel (1679-1731), Swedenborg, and others. Olof Rudbeck the younger (died 1740) distinguished himself in several sciences; he published among others a work on ornithology in three volumes. N. Rosén von Rosenstein (died 1773) was the reformer of medical science in Sweden. Astronomy was illustrated by such names as A. Celsius (l701-'44), S. Klingenstjerna (1689-1785), and P. W. Wargentin (1717-'83); mechanics by C. Polhem (1661-1751) and Swedenborg; and mathematics by J. Faggot, C. Falkengren, E. O. Runeberg, and others. Jurisprudence was represented by D. Nehrman (died 1769) and O. Rabenius (1730-'72). S. Alnander, J. Benzelius, P. Munch, L. P. Halenius, P. Muhrbech, and J. Serenius were the chief writers in the various departments of theology; but the science produced no very eminent man except Swedenborg. (See Swedenborg.) The best known metaphysician was the Cartesian A. Rydelius (1671-1738); the system of Wolf was supported by P. Högström, N. Wallerius, and C. Mesterton; that of Locke by A. Schönberg (1737-1811), F. Kryger (1707-'77), and Runeberg. Johan Ihre (1707-'80) won fame by his Glossarium Sveo-Gothicum, a Swedish dialect lexicon, and by his researches concerning Ulfilas and the Mœso-Gothic language. The Icelandic scholars of the preceding generation were followed in the earlier portion of this period by J. F. Peringskjöld (1688-1725), E. J. Björner, Count G. Bonde (1682-1764), J. Göransson, and N. R. Brocman; but before the middle of the 18th century the taste for Icelandic studies had greatly declined. In geography and travels, E. Tuneld's description of Sweden and J. J. Björnstahl's travels through Europe deserve mention. In history, as in polite literature, Olof Dalin (1708-'63) stands at the head of this period. His journal Den Svenska Argus, “The Swedish Argus” (1732-'4), an imitation of the English “Spectator,” exerted a weighty influence upon the prose style of the language and the literary taste of the nation; and his Svea Rikes Historia, “History of the Swedish Realm,” though wanting in critical ability, is eloquent and pleasing. A more rigorous examination of evidence characterizes the Swedish histories of A. af Botin (1724-'90) and P. Schönström. The history of Charles XII. by G. Norberg (1677-1744), and the “Memoirs of Christina” by J. Arckenholtz, written in French, have been of great assistance to succeeding writers. O. Celsius the younger (1716-'94) wrote histories of the reigns of Gustavus Vasa and Eric XIV., and rendered a great service to Swedish letters by establishing the Tidningar om de Lärdes Arbeten, “Journal of the Works of the Learned,” the first critical periodical in the language. A. A. von Stjernman, C. G. Warmholtz (1710-'84), E. Benzelius (1675-1743), B. Bergius (1723-'84), G. Wallin (1686-1760), and S. Loenbom (died 1776) were laborious critics, editors, and collectors, and brought to light or illustrated a great number of early Swedish monuments. Dalin's allegorical epic, Den Svenska Friheten (“Swedish Freedom”), his tragedy Brynhilda, and his comedy Den Afundsjuke är quick (“The Jealous Man is sharp-witted”), are generally pleasing, though without much depth or vigor. H. C. Nordenflycht (1718-'63), a lady, left a high name as a writer of lyrics. Count G. P. Creutz (died 1785) was the author of a tolerably felicitous pastoral, Atis och Camilla, and Count G. F. Gyllenborg (1731-1809) composed lyrics, elegies, satires, and fables, in a smooth and correct, but too often prosaic style. Poets of less note were Odel (died 1773), U. Rudenschöld (1698-1783), O. Bergklint (1733-1805), and O. Kolmodin (1690-1753). Subsequent to the time of Dalin the dramatic compositions, those of E. Wrangel, H. Hesselius, O. Celsius the younger, and others, were lifeless imitions of Gallic prototypes. Such was the too with the tedious romances of J. H. Mörk (1714-'63), the first Swedish novelist. Molière, Voltaire, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marmontel, and Fénelon were translated and sedulously imitated. V. 1772 to 1809. The earlier portion of this period took its impress to a great extent from the character of the sovereign, Gustavus III. His influence was not beneficial to the higher walks of literature, but he founded the “Swedish Academy of Eighteen” (1786), and otherwise sought to encourage letters. The pupils of Linnæus continued to be the chief scientific men of the time, and labored earnestly for the advancement of science; among them especially C. P. Thunberg, A. Afzelius, A. Sparrman, E. Acharius, O. Swartz, A. J. Retzius, and C. Qvensel. As chemists and mineralogists, the period furnished C. V. Scheele (l742-'86), regarded as one of the founders of organic chemistry, J. G. Gahn (died 1818), to whom several chemical discoveries are due, J. J. Ankarström, and S. Rinman. D. Manderhjelm (died 1810), F. Mallet, and H. Nicander were widely known for their astronomical labors. Juridical writers were M. Calonius (died 1817), L. Tengvall, and others. Medical writers were O. af Acrel (died 1807) and D. Schulz von Schulzenheim (1732-1823). There was little literary activity in the theology of the age, but the labors of A. Knös in dogmatics and of S. Ödman (1750-1829) in exegetics were of high reputation in their day. An æsthetico-metaphysical writer was Thomas Thorild (1759-1819); another name of note in æsthetics is C. A. Ehrensvärd (1745-1800). The philosopher B. C. H. Höijer (1767-1812) based his system upon those of Fichte and Schelling. D. Djurberg and C. B. Wadström (1746-'99) wrote on geography and travels. Sven Lagerbring's Svea Rikes Historia, though often inaccurate, was looked upon as a national work by his contemporaries, and its author was richly rewarded by the Swedish estates. His other writings are numerous. E. M. Fant (1754-1817) compiled a Diplomatarium and an extremely valuable collection of Scriptores Rerum Svecicarum. Jonas Hallenberg (1748-1834) wrote a universal history from the beginning of the 16th century, and many other works, historical, archæological, and philological. H. G. Porthan (1739-1804) investigated the history and antiquities of Finland. Special periods or departments of Swedish history were illustrated by C. G. Nordin (1749-1812), O. Knös (died 1804), J. A. Rehbinder, S. L. Gahm, and U. von Troil (1746-1803). G. Gezelius (l736-'89) compiled the first noteworthy biographical lexicon of distinguished Swedes. Under the direct influence of Gustavus III., the French taste now became almost entirely prevalent. Gustavus himself wrote some dramatic pieces of much merit, but all frigidly French. The favorite poets of his court were Kellgren, Leopold, and Oxenstjerna. J. H. Kellgren (1751-'95) was famous in his time in almost every branch of the poetic art; C. G. af Leopold (1756-1829), sometimes styled “the Voltaire of Sweden,” wrote mainly didactic poems in the style of Pope, and serious lyrical pieces; Count J. G. Oxenstjerna (1750-1818) was the translator of Milton, and author of some descriptive poems. The lyrics of M. Choræus (1774-1806), the Spastara and Medea of B. Lidner (1759-'93), the poet of the passions, and the translations from Virgil, Horace, and Ovid by G. G. Adlerbeth (1751-1818), are still read with pleasure. A few poets escaped the general contagion. Foremost among these was Carl Michael Bellman (1740-'95), a song writer of the highest powers, who set his songs to appropriate melodies himself. Two of his friends, C. I. Hallman (1732-1800) and O. Kexél (l748-'96), were comic dramatic writers of worth. The verse of a female writer, A. M. Lenngren (1754-1817), possesses unusual grace and smoothness. A curious book of travels entitled Min Son på Galejan, “My Son in the Galley,” by J. Wallenberg (1746-'78), is partly in verse, and abounds in a coarse but lively wit. The last years of this period, comprising the reign of Gustavus IV., exhibited little literary life. Freedom of the press was abolished in 1798, and a systematic censorship enforced. The Swedish academy was suspended for some months in 1795, Thorild was banished, Leopold was ordered away from the capital, and Höijer was not allowed to write. VI. 1809 to the present time. With the political revolution of 1809, the literature of Sweden was endowed with a new spirit, and greatly developed by a general use of the vernacular instead of Latin or French. Schools have largely improved both in number and character, and libraries have increased. The chemist Johan Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) was a luminary of the scientific world scarcely less lustrous than Linnæus. (See Berzelius.) As botanists the reputation of three men has extended beyond their native land: Elias Fries (born 1794), K. A. Agardh (1785-1859), and G. Wahlenberg (1780-1851); while C. J. Hartman and N. Lilja are later laborers in this department. A geologist of great note was A. J. Erdman (died 1869). Zoölogy has a famous cultivator in Sven Nilsson, also the author of ethnographical and antiquarian works which have exercised a lasting influence on archæological studies. Other zoölogists of note are Thorell, Stolpe, Zetterstedt, Sundevall, and Malmgren. Entomology has been treated by J. W. Dalman (died 1828), C. J. Schönherr, J. W. Zetterstedt (died 1874), C. G. Thomsen, whose Skandinaviens Coleoptera (1857-70) is well known, and T. Thorell, author of a valuable work on European spiders. The chief laborer in ornithology, besides Nilsson, has been C. J. Sundevall (died 1875). Among mathematicians J. Svanberg, and among physicists Z. Nordmark (died 1828), F. Rudberg, F. W. von Ehrenheim (died 1828), A. J. Angström (1814-'74), and A. G. Theorell (died 1875), have gained considerable eminence. Medical science furnishes the names of A. O. Retzius (died 1860), his brother M. C. Retzius, and J. Hvasser. Prominent legal scholars have been L. G. Rabenius and his son T. Rabenius, E. Bergfalk (also known as a political economist), J. J. Nordström, F. Schrevelius, C. Nauman, J. C. Lindblad, J. G. Carlén (died 1874), and C. J. Schlytte (born 1795), the able editor of Sweden's ancient provincial codes. Sweden has a native philosophical school, whose founder, C. J. Boström (died 1866), developed the most purely idealistic system that has appeared. The Fichte-Schelling school is represented by the historian Geijer, the poet Atterbom, S. Grubbe, and N. F. Biberg (died 1827); while Hegel's theories have found defenders in E. S. Bring and J. W. Snellman. The Boströmian philosophy has recently been ably expounded by G. Nyblæus in a most important work on the history of Swedish philosophy (1873). Purely æsthetical are Atterbom, Hammarsköld, and A. Törneros. Swedish geography and statistics are much indebted to W. Tham and C. af Forsell. F. W. Palmblad, G. Thomée, Rietz, P. Læstadius, J. Berggren, G. von Heidenstam, Hedenborg, G. von Düben, A. Klinkowström, C. D. Arfwedsson, F. Bremer, C. A. Gosselman, and N. J. Andersson are prominent names in the literature of travels; and of late C. W. Paijkull (died 1872), by his account of Iceland, and A. E. Nordenskjöld, by his arctic researches, have gained an extended reputation. The study of Icelandic and its literature has been promoted by the labors of A. A. Afzelius, A. J. D. Cnattingius, Carl Säve, A. O. Lindfors, and G. Cederschjöld. A. Uppström published a critical edition of Ulfilas. In other philological departments M. Norberg (died 1826), C. M. Agrell (died 1840), O. F. Tullberg, J. Berggren, C. Landberg, and P. J. Petterson (died 1874) have distinguished themselves. The chief names in doctrinal theology are H. Reuterdahl, M. E. Ahlman, G. Knös (died 1837), L. G. Anjou, F. G. Hedberg, A. Wiberg, and N. Ignell. Peculiarly attractive from the union of candor, faith, and dialectical power are the popular religious works of P. Vikner. Among rationalists V. Rydberg is the most famous. In exegetics the prominent writers are B. J. Bergqvist, J. H. Thomander (died 1865), and Bishop Agardh; in pastoral theology the most noted are A. G. Knös and A. Z. Pettersson; in ecclesiastical history, Reuterdahl, L. G. Anjou, and J. J. Thomæeus (died 1845). Among theological literature may also be included the elaborate work of Bäckman, Försök till en Svensk Psalmhistoria (1873). The teachings of Swedenborg have been zealously followed by J. Tybeck, C. U. Beurling, and A. Kahl. In Swedish history the first place is due to Eric Gustaf Geijer (1783-1847), whose works are models of historic composition. Anders Fryxell (born 1795) and Strinnholm also rank high as historians. Minor historical writers are P. A. Granberg, G. A. Silfverstolpe (1772-1824), J. F. af Lundblad (born 1791), A. Cronholm, A. A. Afzelius, C. G. Styffe, H. Jarta, A. I. Arwidsson, F. F. Carlson (born 1811), G. Swederus, and J. Hellstenius. Political literature is chiefly devoted to questions of internal government, and one of its prominent works is a study on “The Swedish Parliament” (Den Svenska Riksdagen, 1873) by Rydin; recent publicists and political writers of high reputation are P. E. Svedbom (died 1857) and A. Sohlman (1824-'74), successive editors of the Aftoribladet, the most influential journal of the capital, J. A. Hazelius (died 1871), and M. J. Crusenstolpe (1795-1865). The works on Swedish statistics by E. Sidenbladh and C. E. Ljungberg are highly esteemed. The foremost archæologists of the period are N. Sjöborg, J. G. Liljegren (died 1837), A. E. Holmberg, B. E. Hildebrand, H. Hildebrand, Montelius, C. G. Brunius, and R. Dybeck. Works on Swedish literary history have been published by L. Hammarsköld (1785-1827), P. Wieselgren (born 1800), J. E. Rydqvist, J. Lénström, and Ljunggren. The Biographisk Lexikon a biographical dictionary of celebrated Swedes, edited by Palmblad and subsequently by Wieselgren, is in 25 volumes. This is the brightest age in the annals of Swedish poetry. F. M. Franzén (1772-1847) has gained a lasting renown by his naïve and idyllic lyrics. J. O. Wallin (1779-1839) revised in 1819 the Swedish psalm book, a collection of religious verse hardly excelled in modern hymnology, and added 117 psalms by himself and 73 by Franzén, inferior to none in the book. J. D. Valerius, best known by his bacchanalian songs, and J. M. Silfverstolpe (1777-1831), rather a translator than an original poet, both belonged to the earlier part of the century. Two new poetic schools, of vast influence upon polite literature, arose at the beginning of this period, the romantic and the Gothic. The former was represented by the journals Polyfem (1810-'12), edited by J. C. Askelöf (1787-1848), and Fosforcs, whence its members are sometimes styled Fosforister or phosphorists. At the head of this school stood P. D. A. Atterbom (1790-1855) as a poet, and Palmblad and Hammarsköld as critics. Atterbom's long poem, Lycksalighetens Ö (“The Island of Bliss”), his Blommorna (“The Flowers”), and many of his shorter lyrics, are characterized by depth of fancy and feeling. Other Fosforister were C. F. Dahlgren (1791-1844), author of Mollbergs Epistlar, an imitation of the songs of Bellman; C. E. Fahlcrantz (1790-1866), a successful humorist in his Noaks Ark, but less happy in his religious epic, Ansgarius; and J. C. Nyberg (Svärdström, born 1785), a female writer of considerable ease and grace, better known as Euphrosyne. The Gothic school, which has left a more permanent impress upon poetry, developed its theories through a society, the Göthiska Förbund (the “Gothic Union,” 1811), and a journal, Iduna (1811-'24). It sought its sources of inspiration in the ancient literature and mythology of the North. Foremost among its members, and foremost among all the poets of Sweden, stands Esaias Tegnér (1782-1846). (See Tegnér.) The historian Geijer was another member of the Göthiska Förbund; his lyrics are original, strong, and clear. There is more novelty and force than good poetic taste in Asarne (“The Gods of the North”), Tirfing, and the historical tragedies of P. H. Ling (1776-1839), who is better known out of Sweden as the founder of a new system of medicine or medical gymnastics. Far better in style was C. A. Nicander (1799-1839), author of Runesvärdet (“The Runic Sword”) and other poems. Influenced by one or other of these two schools, but to a certain extent independent of both, are E. J. Stagnelius (1793-1823), whose dramas, such as Martyrerna (“The Martyrs”), epical poems, as Wladimir, and minor pieces, are marked by an admirable spirit and great beauty of diction; Erik Sjöberg (1794-1828), better known by his assumed name Vitalis, who, like Nicander and Stagnelius, died early; A. Lindeblad (born 1800), a composer of religious and secular lyrics in the spirit of Tegnér; and A. A. Grafström (1790-1865), whose poetical development was strongly influenced by Franzén. The highest rank among living poets is held by Johan Ludvig Raneberg (born 1804), a native and resident of Finland, in whose Fänrik Ståls Sägner (“Ensign Stal's Stories”), a series of patriotic lyrics on the Swedish-Russian war of 1808-'9, are displayed an energy of expression and a depth of poetic thought unknown to Swedish literature since the death of Tegnér. C. W. Böttiger (born 1807), the son-in-law of Tegnér, has written some musical dramas and minor pieces, distinguished by a lively fancy and a cultivated taste. O. P. Sturzen-Becker (1811-'69) wrote lyrics after the manner of Heine, and humorous sketches. Other poets are W. von Braun (1813-'60), whose humor is striking, but too often broad and coarse; Nybom (died 1865); C. W. A. Strandberg, whose pseudonymous name is Talis Qualis, and who has translated Byron and written some lyrics of great excellence; B. E. Malmström (1816-'66), Sätherberg, J. M. Lindblad; Tekla Knös, a poetess, whose claims to fame have been sanctioned by the Swedish academy; G. Silfverstolpe, Wennström, V. E. Norén, Z. Topelius, a Finlander (born 1818), E. Sehlstedt (died 1874), and many others. Charles XV. and his brother and successor Oscar II. are poets of some merit; the latter's translation of Herder's Cid has great excellence. Tragedies and historical dramas have been written by J. Börjesson (1790-1866), one of the Fosforister, whose Eric XIV. is one of the masterpieces of the Swedish drama; C. E. Hylten-Cavallius, Dahlgren, and Kullberg; and comedies by A. Blanche (died 1868), Jolin, Cramér, F. Hedberg (at present the leading writer for the stage), Granlund, Beskow, and others. No romances stand higher than those of three female writers, Fredrika Bremer (died 1865), whose first work (1828) was styled Teckningar ur Hvardagslifvet (“Sketches of Every-Day Life”); E. S. Carlén (born 1807), a prolific and popular authoress of novels of society; and Baroness Knorring (died 1833). All of these are widely known both in Europe and America through numerous translations. Of the imitators of Sir Walter Scott, the highest name is perhaps the learned and versatile V. F. Palmblad (1788-1852), celebrated as a geographer, critic, biographer, and politician of the ultra conservative school, whose Aurora Königsmark was one of the earliest readable fictions in Swedish. Equally versatile was C. J. L. Almquist (1793-1866), whose tales, and especially a collection called Törnrosens Bok, are rich in variety and fancy. Other romancers are Count P. G. Sparre (born 1790); F. Cederborg (born 1784), author of Ottar Tralling and Una von Trasenberg, historical fictions of much interest; C. F. Ridderstad (born 1807), an imitator of the Dumas school; Kjellman-Göransson, Zeipel, Bjursten, O. P. Sturzen-Becker; C. A. Wetterberg (born 1804), a popular writer of sketches and tales under the assumed name of Onkel Adam; G. H. Mellin (born 1803); and Viktor Rydberg, statesman, metaphysician, and essayist, who has produced at least one powerful work of fiction, Den siste Atenaven (“The last Athenian”). Claude Gerard (a pseudonyme) and Mrs. M. S. Schwartz (born 1819) enjoy at present the greatest popularity as novelists. As translators may be mentioned C. A. Hagberg, author of an accurate and spirited version of the complete works of Shakespeare; Andersson, translator of Goethe; and N. Lovén, who has rendered the poems of Dante and Camoens into Swedish verse. Most of the higher efforts of literature in English, French, German, Italian, and Danish, especially in fiction, have been translated within the last 30 years. Sweden supports 271 newspapers, one of which, Svenska Veckobladet, has a circulation of 50,000 copies. On the whole the last 15 years has been a period rather of political than of literary activity, yielding comparatively few works of high æsthetical value.